A couple of things I'd like to add to this three year old post.
Three elements seem to characterise the break between Krishnamacharya's practice and that of his Student Pattabhi Jois ( now referred to as Ashtanga Vinyasa or just Ashtanga).
1. Sequences/Series. Krishnamacharya never seemed to advocate fixed sequencing. In the 1941 Yogasanagalu table, the asana are listed as 'groups' of asana although the layout of the list closely resembles the future sequence of asana that Patabbhi Jois would later employ as Primary and Intermediates series. It seems likely that there may have been a general practice in Krishnamacharya's Mysore Palace school of practicing asana in the perhaps intuitive order we find them in the list, however as students progressed it seems likely that Krishnamacharya would instruct the student to practice a more advanced variation of the primary asana on top of or in place of the primary asana. This is a practice Krishnamacharya would continue and that we find represented in the work of his student Srivatsa Ramaswami (Vinyasa Krama).
I was recently asked how best to learn Krishnamacharya/Ramaswami's Vinyasa Krama sequences. the sequences Ramaswami presents are really only groups of subroutines of related postures. The 'sequences' are artificial and only there for pedagogic purposes, to learn the relationship between asana, how one progresses from or is related to another. Once this relationship is explored and understood ( and it's not expected that one be able to practice all or even most of the asana) one would construct ones practice employing asana and mudra that are felt to be most appropriate that day.
Pattabhi Jois apparently settled on the four series, Primary, Intermediate, Advanced A and Advanced B in response to a particular need, I.E the request for a four year College syllabus at the Sanskrit College. These series are based on Krishnamacharya's three groups of asana, Primary, Middle and Proficient. At one point Pattabhi Jois appears to have told David Williams that there were only three series, Primary, Intermediate and Advanced. While it made sense perhaps to turn the large Proficient group of asana into two shorter series Advanced Asana, the later development of a 5th and 6th series based on Advanced A and B seems highly questionable.
One element of practice that distinguishes Krishnamacharys's early Mysore practice from that of his student Pattabhi Jois (along with the Pattabhi Jois' move to fixed sequence from more flexible groups of asana) is Kumbhaka. In Krishnamacharya's book Yoga Makaranda (1934) he mentions Kumbhaka for most of the postures he presents instruction for (see below). In Yogasanagalu (1941) Kumbhaka is mentioned in the asana table but mostly in relation to Advanced asana however Krishnamacharya includes 19 of the Primary asana instructions lifted from his earlier Yoga Makaranda and these instructions still include Kumbhaka. Krishnamacharya continued to teach kumbhaka in asana throughout his teaching career. In the later Yoga Makaranda (Part II) he gives instruction for introducing kumbhaka gradually in asana, generally by taking the automatic kumbhaka or pause between the stages of the breath ( inhalation and exhalation, exhalation and inhalation) that show up naturally when we breathe long and slow and increasing it by approximately a second each week, from 2 seconds up to perhaps five. In more proficient practice the kumbhaka might be increased even further to ten seconds and perhaps in certain stable seated asana/mudras to twenty seconds EG. Maha Mudra
4. Drishti. See this post
DRISHTI: Overview of Drishtis indicated for the Surynamaskaras by the different authors resp. Instructors ALSO Krishnamacharya's Gaze.
and perhaps this one
Krishnamacharya and Burmese Buddhist meditation: focal points linked to breath and brought into asana.
Currently, in my own practice I tend to continue with the general outline/framework of asana that I learned in Pattabhi Jois' Ashtanga Vinyasa which corresponds to the rough placement of asana in Krishnamacharya's Yogasanagalu table. Breathing more slowly than perhaps in current Ashtanga practice and again, in line with Krishnamacharya's Mysore guidelines, I tend to practice less asana than we find in the Ashtanga series,more in keeping with Krishnamacharya's use of groups of asana rather than sequence and series. I will occasionally include longer stays in certain asana and tend to practice kumbhaka throughout my practice, i may add on more proficient variations of primary asana but mainly my focus is to try to develop a more proficient approach to primary asana through exploration of the breath ( lengthening, Kumbhaka, longer stays, dhyana focal points). I will often remove the vinyasa between sides in certain asana as well as between groups but will generally include a full vinyasa between these groups of asana. After my asana practice I include pranayama, pratyahara and Japa mantra meditation as well as a less formal sit.
I'm not suggesting that this is any more correct an approach to yoga (or asana practice) than anything else, however we have Krishnamacharya's early writing and I find it rewarding to explore that writing in practice.
This post from my 'Krishnamacharya's original Ashtanga project blog in May 2012 but with a slightly different title.
|krishnamacharya Yoga Makaranda|
One of the challenges we have with practicing Krishnamacharya's Early Mysore Yoga or 'original' Ashtanga is time ( this was the same conundrum Pattabhi Jois faced).
The 'original' Ashtanga practice included (and continued to include in Krishnamacharya's later teaching)
1. Full Vinyasas : Krishnamacharya seems to be advocating full vinyasa between postures, half vinyasa between sides and possible variations of the key posture. (this appears to have been reduced to between subroutines in Krishnamacharya's later teaching)
2. Breathing : Long slow inhalations and exhalations, from 10- 15 seconds
3. Long stays in postures. 10 breaths seems to be standard, more in certain postures
4. Kumbhaka (breath retention) In many postures kumbhaka is an option, often strongly recommended to attain the full benefit of an asana, many of the forward bends for instance
5. Variations. Krishnamacharya doesn't seem to be advocating a fixed series, variations to certain postures might be added, perhaps preparatory postures but also extensions (from proficient group).
6. Pranayama. Krishnamacharya recommended a minimum of fifteen minutes pranayama after practiced followed by at least a minute in savasana
If we take Janusirsasana as an example
60 second lead in and out (say, 5 seconds for each stage of the vinyasa )
10 breaths in the posture at 10 seconds each per inhalation and exhalation, about six and a half minutes
Ashtanga already has three variations of this postures (4 if we include Viranchyasana B from advanced series), so around twenty minutes
Don't forget the half vinyasas between sides and between variations twenty seconds each so another minute and a half.
So in an ideal practice, around twenty-three minutes just for janusirsasana
If we compare the Primary group of postures in Krishnamacharya's list in Yogasanagalu with the Ashtanga primary we notice there aren't as many postures, this is just a framework of course but still, less postures seems to be the way to go.
Pattabhi Jois comes to the same conclusion, for those of us strapped for time. He outlines the problem in the first quote below and in the second quote offers a possible solution. He suggests that if your busy with work and don't have time for a full practice you might practice up to navasana only and then move to finishing, he even suggests doing your headstand at work. On the next day you begin with navasana after your Sury's ( he suggests only doing half the amount of those).
And of course if your a beginner you will often stop your practice at marichiyasana C anyway and move on to finishing, or in 2nd series you might stop at Kapo or Karandavasana.
Practicing half a series then isn't that new or radical and doesn't have to be just because your a beginner or have a busy lifestyle.
So should we decide to explore Krishnamacharya's approach we could take the Primary and 2nd series we're familiar with and divide them in half and practice the longer slower breathing, longer stays and breath retention allowing for deeper bandha engagement.
Primary to navasana + pranayama
Primary to end of series + pranayama
2nd series Bakasana + pranayama
Bhaadvajrasana to end of series + pranayama
Full regular Primary
Full regular 2nd series.
We often tend to think of an advanced practice in terms of the shapes of advanced postures and yet we might also think of an advanced or proficient practice as being reflected in the approach we take to the asana rather than the asana itself.
It appears Krishnamacharya's proficient group of postures wasn't intended to be practiced as one of more series but more likely as extensions to the asana found in the Primary and Middle group. One might reflect on whether turning them into fixed series in the 70's and 80's was, in retrospect, beneficial. I'd be interested to hear arguments for and against fixed advanced series.
My own argument for (off the top of my head) is that by practising Advanced series we practice the most challenging postures everyday and this leads to increased proficiency rather than attempting an advanced posture once in a while which might lead to strain.
However my argument against the above is that in Vinyasa Krama I've practiced advanced postures as extensions of similar asana of the same family. In Asymmetric series for example one moves from janu sirsasana and half lotus postures (primary), arcana dhanurasana A and B (advanced B)and on into eka pada sirsasana (2nd series) and then into skandasana and durvasana (Advanced A). I often add omkrasana, parsva dandasana kapilasana, buddhasana and marichyasana H (Advanced B) which while not in Ramaswami's book seem to be appropriate further extensions and because of the preparation any strain is avoided. This is something one might explore on the 5th and 6th Days
And yet do any of the postures above really appear more advanced than Krishnamacharya's janusirsasana at the top of the page. Janusirsasana appears simple, we find it in the current Ashtanga Primary series and Krishnamacharya's Primary group yet it's basically a forward bending version of mahamudra. It's a highly stable, grounded posture that cries out for breath and bandha work. We can stay here a long long time, a very long time, engage mula, uddiyana and jalandhara bandha fully, it allows for variations, the deep forward bend of janusirsasana and yet also twist to both sides by changing the hold on the foot. It's all in the approach we take to it, five breaths only in such a pose seems a bit of a crime.
If nothing else we can, of course, milk our paschimottanasana (after backbends), badha konasana, badha padmasana and longer stays in the finishing postures for all they're worth.
Here are the quotes mentioned above.
That is why I am telling. One asana, for example paschimottanasana (has) 16 vinyasas, Purvottanasana - 15, Ardha baddha padma paschimottanasana, tiriang mukeka pada paschimottanasana, janu sirsasana A, B, C, marichyasana A, B, all 22 vinyasas. Full vinyasa .
You doing full vinyasa all - that is the best. Secondary you with sixth vinyasa all the asanas is coming. That you changing, this time (when) your strength is more, you changing that time. Sixth, seventh (vinyasa) paschimottanasana you do. After 8 – 9 then jump again. “sat” (six) position you go. I every day I teaching now. Same method you do. Both is no problem
Method is good no problem. Work is there. He is going work. (for a working man half vinyasa method is good) Your yoga practice, you take one hour. One hour or two hours your expanding your time. That time all the asanas taken one day full vinyasa you do at least five hours also you want you can understand (if you take full vinyasa, you need 5 hours to complete practice). One primary asanas doing, 5 hours also you want. That is why. You (are a) working (man). You not spending all the time on the yoga practice.
You can understand. Full time you take, full vinyasa you doing. Only for (completing) primary asanas takes 5 hours. 5 hours primary postures (with) full vinyasa. 50 asanas is there completely primary postures. That 50 asanas you doing taken 5 hours, with full vinyasa. You working. Another place is working. Yes you take money, you eating food, all you want. That only for your spending (free) time only for yoga, very rare (little time), very difficult also yourself. That is why you short cut you take. That is one or two hours. Two hours spent your yoga practice. That is good. That is also is good. Yes OK. That I tell you.
Sri K Pattabhi Jois Public Talks on Ashtanga Yoga - France 1991
Question: If one has only half an hour for practice, what should he do?
Answer: Now, no time. Many work is there. That time, no time. But you including half an hour time (if you have half an hour) you spend this way: You take practice.Anyone (always) start (with) Suryanamaskar half posture (half of the postures) you do, no problem. Halfposture means: primary half to Marichyasana D. (next day) Navasana you do aftertake Suryanamaskar (after you have finished surya namaskar you go on straight to navasana and the rest of the postures). Sirsasana and you do your work. No problem (do head stand at work?).
Sri K Pattabhi Jois Public Talks on Ashtanga Yoga - France 1991
How to practice Krishnamacharya's early, 'original' Ashtanga Part 1