See the ongoing Yogasangalu translation project for the translation so far.
Below is the final page of the first section and directly follows the asana table from yesterday.
By making the breath smooth (and long), and by concentration or focussing the mind on the breath, the perfection of the posture is obtained
Please see Patanjala yogasutra and Vyasabhasha (P 2, S 47) *and my notes below
Both type of people (practitioners), be happy (enjoy).
Vachaspathi Mitra in that commentary
“सांसिद्धिकोहिप्रयत्नः शरीरधारको न योगांगस्योपदेश्टव्यासनस्य कारनम्। तस्मात् उपदेश्टव्यासनस्यायमसाधकः विरोधीच स्वाभाविकः प्रयत्नः। तस्य च याध्रुच्छिकासनहेतुतया सननियमोपहंत्यत्वात्॥”
“Saamsiddhiko hi prayatnah shariradharako na yogangasyopadeshtavyasanasya kaaranam. Tasmat upadeshtavyasanasyayamashadhakah virodhi cha swabhavikah prayatnah. Tasya cha yadruchhikasanahetutayaa sananiyamopahamtyatvat.”
“तसात् उपधिश्टनियमासनम् अभ्यस्यता स्वाभाविकप्रयत्नशैथिल्यात्मा प्रयत्न अस्तेयः नान्यथा उपदिश्टं आसनं सिध्यतीति स्वाभाविकप्रयत्नशैथिल्यं आसनसिद्धिहेतुः।”
“tasmat upadishtaniyamaasanam abhyasyataa svaabhaavikaprayatnashaithilyaatmaa prayatna asteyah naanyatha upadishtam asnam sidhyateeti svaabhavikaprayatnashaithilyam asanasiddhihetuh”
“अनन्ते व्या-नागनायके स्थिरतरपणासहस्रविध्रुतविश्वंबरामंढले समापन्नं चित्तं आसनं निर्वर्तयतीति”
“Anante vya-naganayake sthiratarapanasahasravidhrutavishwambaramandale samapannam chittam asanam nirvartayateeti” *see my notes below for translation
Therefore, how many breathings for which asana? When is inhalation? When is exhalation? In what way? When body is stretched forward, inhalation or exhalation? What about when you raise your head? To know this mystery and practice in order is called Vinayasa. These along with the significance of each asana will be discussed in 1 to 32.
Yoga Sutra II-47
Translation: James Haughton Woods The Yoga Sutras of Patanjal
Note on the above translation by Srivatsa Ramaswami
The translation of Vachaspati Misra's work by the English translator the translation of the phrase sariradharaka is imprecise. I am supplying the appropriate terms I deem correct.
The other part of the sâtra refers to samápatti, or mental focus. Where or on what should the mental focus be? It is to be on ananta (ananta-samápatti). Now we have to investigate the contextual meaning of the word ananta, translated as “endless” or “limitless,” which many writers equate with infinity. So some schools tend to say that while practicing ásanas, one should focus the attention on infinity, which is inappropriate— and impossible, at least for the vast majority of yogàs. Ananta also refers to the serpent, Ädiùeüa, whose incarnation Patañjali is believed to be. So some schools suggest that one should focus on a mental image of Ädiùeüa or Patañjali. It may be possible, but it is uncomfortable to think that Patañjali would write that one should focus on his form for the success of ásana practice. So what might ananta symbolically signify? The word ananta can be considered to be derived from the root, “ana”—to breathe (ana ùváse). We are all familiar with the group of words práóa, apána, vyána, etc., names of the five práóas derived from the root “ana.” So in the sâtra, ananta could mean “breath”; ananta-samápatti is then translated as “focusing the mind on the breath.” In fact Ananta, or the serpent king, is associated with air. Mythologically the cobra is associated with air; there is a common mythological belief that cobras live on air. If you look at the icon of Naôarája (the dancing úiva), you will find all five elements of the universe (earth, water, air, fire, and space) represented symbolically in úiva. The matted red hair represents fire, the Gaïgá in his tresses, the water element; the air element is said to be represented by the snake around the lord’s neck. So ananta-samápatti would mean focusing the attention on the breath or práóa.
Thus this sâtra means that while practicing ásana, one should do smooth inhalations and exhalations and focus the attention on the breath. Since Vinyása Krama involves several aesthetic movements into and within yoga postures, to achieve the coordination of movement, breath, and mind, one should synchronize the breath with the movement with the help of the focused mind. By such practice, slowly but surely, the union of mind and body takes place, with the breath acting as the harness. But why don’t other texts talk about it? There is a saying, “Anuktam anyato gráhyam.” If some details are missing from one text, they should be gathered from other complementary texts. Haôha-yoga-pradàpiká explains a number of ásanas but does not mention breath synchronization and other basic parameters. But Haôha-yoga-pradàpiká proclaims that its instructions are like a prerequisite for the Rája Yoga practice of Patañjali. These two texts are therefore compatible. Thus we can conclude that Patañjali gives the basic parameters of ásana practice (and also of the other aïgas like Práóáyáma), but for details we have to refer to compatible texts like Haôha-yoga-pradàpiká, Yoga- Yájñavalkya and others".
Is this then the two types (approaches to practice or asana) that Krishnamacharya is referring too
1. "By relaxation of effort
A natural effort sustaining the body is not the cause of this kind of posture which is to be taught as an aid to yoga. For if its cause were such, the preaching of it would be purposeless in that it could be naturally perfected. Therefore this natural effort does not accomplish this kind of posture which is to be taught and is contrary [to it]. For in so far as this [natural posture] is the cause of an arbitrarily chosen posture it is the destroyer of the specific kind of posture. Consequently a man, practising the specific posture as taught, should resort to an effort which consists in the relaxation of the natural effort. Otherwise the posture taught cannot be accomplished". Vachaspati Micra
How do we do this?
As Ramaswami stated above
"By making the breath smooth (and long), and by concentration or focussing the mind on the breath, the perfection of the posture is obtained. Note: Krishnamacharya interprets this sutra differently than other teachers. he gives the correct technical meaning (in this context) fromn prayatna or Jivana prayatna, or effort of life which is breath. he says that it is the breath that should be made smooth and effortless, not the posture. it is not physical; it is the breathing" p55
2. by a [mental] state-of-balance with reference to Ananta
Or . . . with Ananta,^ the Chief of Serpents, who upholds the globe of the earth upon his thousand very steadfast hoods, [with him] the mind-stuff comes into a balanced state and produces the posture". (Vachaspati Micra)