We've had to wait for some time, since January in fact, on account of Satya's other commitments, including a trip to Mysore I believe where he had the chance to receive some assistance from friends (thank-you), but here's the next instalment of Satya's translation of Krishnamacharya's Yogasanagalu.
Thank you Satya for your continued commitment to the project.
This I believe takes us, what half way through the final section, only ten more pages to go.
I'm posting this before reading it myself, can't wait.
I'm posting this before reading it myself, can't wait.
The ongoing Krishnamacharya Yogasanagalu Translation project, sits on one of the page bars at the top of the blog ( below the main picture).
Yogasanagalu translation project
Yogasanagalu translation project
Krishnamacharya's Yogasanagalu Pages 84-91
Hundreds of years ago, practice of yoga was as popular as the Vedas. According to the power of the person, it could be samantraka (possessing charms or spells) or amantraka (without the vedic verses). Now it exists only in some people. Upanitas (those invested in Brahminical thread and study vedic philosophy and texts) are empowered in both. Anupanita is empowered in amantraka yoga only.
How Gandharva veda (classical music) is differentiated into seven different notes, Veda chatushtaya is discriminated as udatta, anudata and swanta, Mantras are divided into anganyasa, karanyasa and vyapakanyasa, the third step of yoganga called yogasana was rooted in vinyasa and practiced customarily with vinyasa. Only some people still have that practice.
However, some of our people of the country of Bharata, by peer pressure, are forgetting our rooted customs with respect to dress, language, food, drinks, bathing and sandhyavandana practice. Similarly, if we say that people are forgetting the vinyasa that goes along with the asana practice for the third step of yoganga, it is not incorrect.
While practicing yogabhyasa, the variations of inhalation and exhlations are known as vinyasa. This is explained in Patanjalayogasutra 2, (47 - 48). Please see the appropriate translation and commentary.
It is enough if you remember “Samsargaja doshaguna bhavanti.”
Music needs shruti and laya, yoga requires deep breathings and mind needs concentration. If you miss one of these elements, yoga and raga becomes unbearable.
- Restrain prana with pranayama
- Restrain mind with dhyana and japa
- Restrain vision from Shanmukhi mudra
- Restrain Vajni (speech) with silence
- Restrain sex organs by satvik food
These five practices will provide increased lifespan, knowledge and sense of well being.
It is not difficult for boys and girls to learn vinyasa. Five year old boys and girls can start to learn yoga. Those who are old and sick can start practice without vinyasa and learn gradually. People who are blind, speech and hearing impaired can also learn to practice yoga.
This is an important characteristic of the eight step yoga practice. In our land of Bharata, there are three types of people: sthoola, krusha and vakra. Sthoola is obese type, krusha is lean and emaciated and vakra is crooked and curved. Crooked body is an abnormality and a disease. Obese body type have a tendency to breath short and shallow. Although the lean can breath deeply, they get tired quickly. The crooked body type have a difficult time in stretching the limbs. Without bending and stretching, such body type do not get proper blood and oxygen circulation. This also applies to obese and lean type.
Practicing yoga with deep breathing variations known as langhanakriya and brahmanakriya can eliminate these body variations and impart strength and beauty.
Recently, we are seeing people who are extremely obese and suffering from heart diseases. We are also seeing people who are lean due to lack of proper nutrition. Some have experienced a hard life of growing up on the streets from childhood and have become crooked. Primary reason for these are overeating, eating only dry food or other unhealthy practices.
Yoganga practice with appropriate vinyasa will eliminate and normalize all three types of body variations.
Samakaya is very important for yoganga practitioners as procalaimed in Bhagavad Gita as “Samam kayam shirogrivam.” After each practice, one should stand in samasthiti with hands folded together in front of the chest and pray to their ishtadeva (preferred God).
Please see the picture illustration here. Samastithi position showing the samakaya expression gives happiness. Some people can get proficient in some yoganga asanas very quickly. For others it may take longer. One need not get discouraged.
Please study the Patanjalayogasutra “Sa tu deerghakalanairantaryasatkadarasevito drudha bhoomihi”
Due to misuse, left and right of muscles can become right and left. Vinyasa practice can set this right.
What must be the mental status during the practice of yoganga? This is determined by vinyasa. Although people may have sufficient wealth, gold and other material riches, if they do not have relaxed movement of pranavayu in their body, they will not be happy. The inhalations and exhalations in non-practitioners of yoganga are approximately 360 per galige (24 minutes). One day including day and night consists of 60 galige’s and therefore 60 x 360 = 21600 breathings. This number is for healthy people. In the diseased, the number can be higher or lower. In children, pregnant women, drunks, and criminals, the rate of movement of prana is entirely different. Overall, it should not exceed 21,600. If it exceeds, untimely death is assured.
Those who practice yoganga, with the power of vinyasa and pranayama, have the ability to significantly decrease this number.
While practicing yoga with reverence, one can offer their essence to God during exhalation and during inhalation, imagine/suppose that God is entering your heart. During kumbhaka, we can practice dharana and dhyana. Such practices will improve mental concentration and strengthen silence/stillness. Eliminates agitation and restlessness. This is easy for people with samakaya personality and impossible for Vishamakaya’s.
Standing in samakayastithi (samastithi), we have to invite ishtadeva (preferred God) into our heart and pray. This is called “Hrudyaga” according to some people. This must be done standing only.
Pranayama, dhyana and japa must be done in samakaya stithi while seated. Pranayama practices must always be done in a sitting position. Only Bahyaradhane (outward prayer or glorification of God) can be done sitting or standing.
The basis of daily count for pranavayu in people is from the Patanjaladarshana section of Sarvadarshana collection by Sri Sayana Madhava.
The reverence and respectful reflection during pranayama and yoga practice is discussed in Sri Vishnusahasranama text under the stanza “Suparno vayuvahanah..”
While practicing yoganga, according to samakaya or vishamakaya state correspondingly Brahmanakriyala-langhanakriya or samakriya vinyasa must be performed.
Samakriya means, equal inhalation and exhalation.
- What does it mean?
- Amantraka, Samantraka , is there a difference between these?
- At what age does one have permission to practice?
- How many are there?
- Must everyone practice all postures? It is natural that these questions are being asked now.
- Can one learn and practice by using photos and charts?
- Instruction/advice by a Guru necessary?
- How long should one spend on yoga?
- Why don’t we move our limbs faster like they do in today’s physical exercises such as drill and sports?
- Why? There is no end to such grumbling.
- For those who believe, the answer is that it is a body position and a spritual practice producing stillness and joy that permits union of jeevatma and paramatma. Those who don’t accept Paramatma, but accept jeevatma, understand it as the union of jeevatma (soul) and the mind. For those who do not accept the philosophy of personal soul, understand it as the body practice that permits the union of indriyas(cognitive organs) and the prana.
- Indians could feel both of these types of reverence. However, due to the siege on the nation, only left in few families.
- At the age when a child can eat on its own, has permission to practice.
- The number if asanas are equivalent to the number of animals in this world
- One should practice appropriately according to one’s body endowed with samabhava or vishayabhava. Learn this from the smart ones. Therefore, some people must become completely proficient in the art of yoga.
- (-7 ) Yoga, music, medical treatment and dance - all these must be learned under a Guru, otherwise could be dangerous.
- Not necessary to practice for more than an hour. One hour in the morning and one hour in the evening before taking food.
- If you move your limbs quickly like they do in drill and sports, it will lead to imbalance in blood circulation and movement of pranavayu and will lead to sthoola kaya and vakra kaya body type instead of samakaya, but may also develop crooked limbs.
- It will eliminate all types of diseases and will help develop mental concentration. However, I would like to remind the only condition that yoganga sadhane must be learnt under the supervision of a Guru.
All these information provided here is based on texts such as Patanjaladarshana, Yogayagnyavalkya samhita, many Upanishats, Gheranda samhita, Hatayoga pradipika, etc.
Instead of believing that only asanas as the practice of yoga, but understand that practicing other limbs(elements) along with it(asnas) is the yogabhyasa, is a beautiful saying.
Those who practice yoga by following rules for consumption of food, speech and place can obtain immediate benefits.
Among countless yogasanas, which one is middle, higher and lower? Which one should be practiced first? Which ones can be practiced by pregnant women? Commonly how many types? By these interesting and confusing questions, one should not feel doubtful.
Standing, sitting, lying, legs stretched, legs folded, body turned sideways, upside down, and jumping, with so many types available, if one decides appropriately on the basis of body type, age and disease state, the asanas will be higher and most beneficial. Women who are 5 month pregnant must not do asanas involving extreme bending. If pranayaman, japa and dhyana are practiced as per the customs of the household, there will not be any problems.
After giving birth, from 16th to 21st day, once a day, anuloma, viloma, pratiloma and ujjayi pranayama without kumbhaka may be practiced. After 24 - 45 days, there is no restriction to practice yogasana.
During period, women should not practice yoga. However, if they have abdominal pain, if they practice mahamudra, baddhakonasana and upavishtakonasana along with moolabandha, they will get relief from pain.
If men have ejaculation or urinary problems, they should practice salamba sarvangasana with udiyana and moolabandha along with two types of sheetali pranayama.
When starting to teach students or patients who came for treatment, yoga instructors must first demonstrate deep and subtle inhalation and exhalation following the Ujjayi system. This is the basis of yogabhasa. Offer prayers foremost to Patanjali and then to Ananta Nagaraja and then start.
During uttarayana, shukla paksha, one can start on an auspicious star and day with asanas appropriate to the personality. However, for sthoola (obese) body type, it is best not to teach sarvangasana and shirshasana until the obesity has come down.