Nice find and share from my friend Oscar, this unpublished Jain asana text, Yogāsana-Jaina
Satapathy B, Sahay GS. A brief introduction of "Yogāsana - Jaina": An unpublished yoga manuscript. Yoga Mimamsa 2014;46:43-55
See here for the link to the study of the text on the Yoga Mimamsa site
Some friends of mine will be excited to see handstand represented here, not just in any book on asana but a book of asana for the Jain's spiritual study, seems handstand wasn't just for 'fun', although I would boringly argue that it still belongs in your home yoga shala.... with all our other asana (see (Updated) Yoga and Boredom - the 'fun' factor).
"NOTE 8 These āsanas also give us information about the āsanas popular in Jaina tradition. We have the information of two traditions of āsana identified as "MUNI" and "YOGI" tradition according to Haṭhapradīpikā (Digambar & Kokaje, 1998, Ch. I /18). The āsanas described in the text under study seem to be the āsanas of Jaina tradition, especially the āsanas such as Dīkṣāsana, Vyākhyānāsana, and so on. This also provides a reason to think about the possibility of various traditions of āsanas".
I remember reading some advice regarding setting up meditation space which I carried over into my asana practice space. The idea was that the meditation space, if possible and our domestic situation permits, is made... sacred or at least 'special'. Ideally a separate room used only for meditation, contemplation and or asana/yoga. If ones partner wants to engage in a domestic you leave the room, you don't hold an argument in your meditation/practice space, you come to associate it with peace and reflection. It is not perhaps a place for play, if you want to workshop an/some asana you might prefer to do it elsewhere ( I tended to explore postures I was working on in the evening, it did blur the distinction sometimes).
I always liked that advice and I've come to think of it recently more and more in relation to asana. We can treat our headstand, or here handstand as a meditative practice, we enter the asana, any asana and look towards samadhi (yes, in asana, why not).
"In Patanjali's Eight Limbs, concentration and meditation are the sixth and seventh steps of Raja Yoga (see p. 1 6). The eighth is samadhi or superconsciousness, a state beyond time, space and causation where body and mind are transcended and total unity exists. In samadhi, the meditator and the object of concentration become one - for it is the ego that creates a sense of separation or duality. According to the ancient Vedas, concentration or dharana is fixing the mind on one thought for twelve seconds; meditation or dhyana is equal to twelve dharanas - about two and a half minutes - and samadhi to twelve dhyanas - just under half an hour. Companion to Sivananda yoga
However, treating asana as toys, playthings one day, meditative practice the next perhaps blurs that meditative association.
But then perhaps the distinction is always clear, the opening and closing prayer preserving that 'sacred'/special place for practice, wherever we may find ourselves.
An argument for not faffing about between opening and closing.
Back to the text
Also interesting to see Chatauranga dandasana (see below) and some standing postures.The suggestion in the past has been that Krishnamacharya invented or introduced to yoga standing postures, which always seemed faintly ridiculous given that standing while watching the sun come up with one leg folded is as old as the sun itself.... well, almost.
|If you can't beat 'em.... and the Jain's say it's ok...|
Looking at the picture in the Yogāsana-Jaina ,
perhaps I need to think about bringing my head
through and straightening more.
āsanas mentioned in the manuscript
There are references of 107 (āsana no. 18 is missing) āsanas, of which only 17 have been described in Sanskrit verses and their translation has also been provided. The rest of the āsanas are available only with their names and illustrations. Following are the list of āsanas recorded in this manuscript and presented through graphical pictures.
Nice to see Chatuaranga dandasana in the text here called Maralasana, or more popularly at the time of writing Hansasana
|fig 20 āsana No. 31 - Marālāsana or more popularly at the time of writing Hansasana - more recently chatauranga dandasana|
āsana No. 31 - Marālāsana [vide [Figure 20]: On the basis of the illustration provided, we can say that this āsana is popularly known as Hansāsana. This is actually a simplified form of Mayϋrāsana. Ladies who have an anatomically weak abdomen are not suggested Mayϋrāsana ; instead Hansāsana is recommended for them. In Hansāsana, we can keep the toes on the ground due to which the vigorous pressure on the abdominal area is reduced, and hence it is suggested for ladies. In the current Ms. also, the toes are shown resting on the ground. Hansāsana is known here by the name "Marālāsana."
And for moon days Relaxasana
āsana No. 13- Dakṣiṇāsana [vide [Figure 12]: This is done in a sleeping position on the right side and by keeping the body and limbs straight. The head is kept elevated by supporting it with the right palm. The left hand is placed on the left thigh. The verse suggests recitation of " śaṃ" seed mantra denoting Parameṣṭhī. The translator has added a point in translation that doing this āsana from the left side can also yield the same result as dong it from the right.
|Nanzoin Temple in Sasaguri, Fukuoka Prefecture, Japan|
Intro to the text
"Considering the need to unearth the knowledge of yoga hidden in various handwritten manuscripts, the Philosophico-Literary Research Department (PLRD) of Kaivalyadhama, Lonavala has undertaken a long-term project on unpublished manuscripts. The manuscript (Ms.) used for the current study is totally devoted to the description of āsanas and describes around 108 āsanas. The title of the Ms. is "Yogāsana-Jaina." There are many manuscripts and published texts which describe the number of āsanas as ranging from 84 to 100 and even more. One of the published books that describe more than 84 āsanas is Jogapradīpyakā (Maheshananda, Sharma, Sahay, & Bodhe, 2006). Some of the unpublished manuscripts are Yogāsanamālā (Sacitra) (Jaitrāma, n.d.), āsanayoga (Kapālakuraṇṭaka, n.d.), and Siddhāntamuktāvalī (n.d.). Out of the unpublished manuscripts named above, i.e. Yogāsanamālā (Sacitra), is devoted to the description of āsanas in a dialect of Hindi and provides illustrations of āsanas. However, the manuscript used for the current study, "Yogāsana-Jaina,0" seems to be different and interesting because it represents one special sect of religion and the āsanas described seem to be especially for the followers of that religion. It also provides the illustration of each āsana. This Ms. was procured from Rajasthan Prachya Vidya Pratishthana, Bikaner, Rajasthan, a copy of which is available at Kaivalyadhama Library (Accession No. R635y8/15294). We find this manuscript referred to in the Encyclopaedia of āsanas (Gharote, Jha, Devnath, & Sakhalkar, 2006). The compiler of the said encyclopaedia has referred to all the āsanas available in "Yogāsana-Jaina," but has not provided composite and analytical information about this Ms. The current study was undertaken in order to attract the āsana practitioners as well as scholars toward this manuscript,
so that they are benefitted from the not so easily accessible information inside it".
A general estimate about the content of the manuscript
- The manuscript has a total of 66 folios. Twenty-four āsanas have been given independent status, i. e. one āsana in one folio (refer Figure 1), whereas 42 folios have been presented with the illustrations of two āsanas in one folio.
Figure 1: Dīkṣāsana with Note (Folio No - 1)
Click here to view
- The manuscript seems to be a compilation or is at least rewritten by the translator of the verses available on 17 āsanas. āsana no. 18 is missing.
- Nothing is known about the author of this text nor do we have any additional information about the Ms. As the beginning statement and colophon are missing, nothing can be said with regard to the author.
- Seventeen āsanas have been described in Sanskrit, along with their translation. A total of 35 verses have been devoted for the description of 17 āsanas.
- The translation of two verses indicates that the translator is not the original writer of the manuscript "Yogāsana." We find this in the context of the translation of 11 th āsana, i.e. Siddhāsana, and the 13 th āsana, i.e. Dakṣiṇāsana.
- While translating the verse on Siddhāsana, the translator writes that this āsana is also known as Muktāsana, Guptāsana, andVajrāsana, as we find in Haṭhapradīpikā (Digambar & Kokaje, 1998, Ch. I / 37). The addition of Muktāsana in this context indicates that he is not the original writer of the manuscript or verses but only a compiler, and also that he was familiar with Haṭhapradīpikā. Similarly, we find that in the context of Dakṣiṇāsana (āsana no. 17), while translating the verse on this āsana, the translator writes, "According to me, the same effect is possible if we do it from the left side." This sentence confirms that the original writer of the verses is different from the translator.
- The selection of āsanas, the way they have been described, and their illustrations, all indicate that this manuscript and the āsanas contained therein are related with the followers of Jaina religion. Even in the Jaina religion, these āsanas seem to represent the śvetāmbar Jaina sect of Jaina religion, which insists on wearing white clothes and keeping the mouth covered with a piece of white cloth. The mouth covered with a piece of cloth is visible in the illustration of the last āsana named "Vyākhyānāsana" (see āsana No. 108 of the current Ms.)
- These āsanas also give us information about the āsanas popular in Jaina tradition. We have the information of two traditions ofāsana identified as "MUNI" and "YOGI" tradition according to Haṭhapradīpikā (Digambar & Kokaje, 1998, Ch. I /18). The āsanas described in the text under study seem to be the āsanas of Jaina tradition, especially the āsanas such as Dīkṣāsana,Vyākhyānāsana, and so on. This also provides a reason to think about the possibility of various traditions of āsanas.
- The sketches provided as illustrations also give a reflection of a Jaina Muni or a Jaina follower.
- Out of the 17 āsanas described in metrical forms in the Anuṣtup metre, we find an instruction of meditation upon Arihanta Deva in 9āsanas. These nine āsanas are: Dīkṣāsana, Padmāsana, Svastikāsana, Nivṛtyāsana, Paρjāsana, Bhagāsana, Devaguruvandanāsana, Paρcāṅanamaskārāsana, and Kārmukāsana. We also find instructions for the recitation of "OM" inSiddhāsana and " śaṃ" referring to Parameṣṭhī in Dakṣiṇāsana.
āsana No. 12- Bhagāsana [vide [Figure 11]: Its technique is similar to the technique of Nādānusandhāna described in Haṭhapradīpikā (Digambar & Kokaje, 1998, Ch. IV/68). However, there is no mention of Nādānusandhāna in the current Ms. This particular practice is grouped under Mudrā, and known as ṣaṇmukhī Mudrā as well as Yonimudrā. It seems that the practice is associated with the name Yoni, therefore, here it has been named Bhagāsana. Bhag and Yoni denote the same part of the female body. The special instruction is to meditate upon Arihant in this position.
Satapathy B, Sahay GS. A brief introduction of "Yogāsana - Jaina": An unpublished yoga manuscript. Yoga Mimamsa 2014;46:43-55
Satapathy B, Sahay GS. A brief introduction of "Yogāsana - Jaina": An unpublished yoga manuscript. Yoga Mimamsa [serial online] 2014 [cited 2015 Apr 20];46:43-55. Available from: http://www.ym-kdham.in/text.asp?2014/46/1/43/141413
See my previous post on Chatauranga dandasana (LINK)
see also perhaps
my post from last year
Origin's of Modern Yoga Asana: Comparison of Krishnamacharya's teachers drawings and Norman's Sjoman's Sriitattvanidhi (1880's) presentation in his Mysore palace book
Yoga and Jainism
from here http://www.jyds.co.in/6-yoga&dhyan.html
"The practice of Yoga in Jainism is quite simple to follow, as opposed to its inclusion and practice in other religions. Jainism makes several concessions for the practitioners of Yoga. Firstly, the belief of Jainism in Yoga is based on the tenet that the Yoga is a combination of all the activities of mind, body, and speech. Jain leaders have hailed Yoga as the path to the much-sought after liberation of the soul. According to them, Yoga involves both asrava meaning acts of karma as well as samyak caitra, an essential quality. It is a blend of both these factors that helps one attain liberation.
Jain gurus have gone ahead and referred to Yoga as the highest form of devotion. Several leaders of this religion have prescribed five major vows to be taken by ascetics who practice Yoga. There is a separate section of 12 minor vows that have to be observed by the laity. Given the way Yoga has shaped the thinking in Jainism, many experts of this religion today say that Jainism is, in fact, yogic thinking that has branched out as a separate religion. Such is the influence of Yoga on Jainism.
The heavy influence of Yoga on Jainism is visible in their architecture as well. Jain temples and icons that have survived till date often depict a picture of a Jain tirthankara meditating in a yogic posture. Most often than not, these yogic postures are ‘padmasana’ or ‘kayotsarga’. According to Jain scriptures, the founder of Jainism, Lord Mahavira is said to have attained enlightenment while he was meditating in the yogic position of ‘mulabandhasana’. This posture taken by Lord Mahavira was first revealed in Acaranga Sutra. It also finds mention in yet another Jain scripture called Kalpsutra.
It is said Patanjali’s eightfold path of Yoga is inspired by five major vows prescribed for the ascetics in Jainism. The interconnection between Yoga and Jainism is admitted by various experts in the field. According to them, this interconnection is even older than or nearly as old as the Indus Valley Civilization. The stone seals found at the excavation site, they say, are indicative of this influence. Yet another evidence of strong links between Jainism and Yoga are the similar postures taken by various Jain tirthankaras. Many experts say that these links do not just signify a deep relationship between Jainism and Yoga, but also reveal the extent of influence of Jainism on Yoga.
Some of the earliest canonical text belonging to Jainism, such as Acarangasutra, and other religious texts such as Niyamsara and Tattvarthasutra, lay down the rules of practicing Yoga, both for the ascetics as well as the common man. Other scriptures that have references of Yoga in the religion of Jainism are Ishtopadesh by Pujyapada written in 5th century CE. There are texts written by Acharya Haribhadra Suri called Yoga Bindu, Yoga Drishtisamuccya, Yoga sataka, Yoga Vimisika. Yoga refers to traditional physical,mental and spritual disciplines, originating in ancient India,whose goal is the attainment of a state of perfect spiritual insight and tranquility.The word is associated with meditative practices in Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism. Within Hindu philosophy, the word yoga is used to refer to one of the six orthodox schools of Hindu philosophy;Yoga in this sense is based on the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali, and is also known as Raja Yaga to distinguish it from later schools.Patanjali's system is discussed and elaborated upon in many classical Hindu texts, and has also been influential in Buddhism and Jainism.The Bhagavadgita introduces distinctions such as Jnana Yoga("yoga based on knowledge") vs.Karma yoga ("yoga based on action"). Other systems of philosophy introduced in Hinduism during the medieval period are Bhakti Yoga and Hatha yogaThe Sanskrith word yoga has the literal meaning of "yoke", from a root yuj. As a term for a system of abstract meditation or mental abstraction it was introduced by Patanjali in the 2nd century BC. Someone who practices yoga or follows the yoga philosophy with a high level of commitment is called a yogi/yogini.
KAYOTSARGA : Total relaxation with self-awareness
Kayotsarga may be practised either standing or sitting or lying down. For beginners, it is advisable to adopt lying down posture.In standing posture, you have to stand straight with the spine and neck in the straight line but without stiffness. Keep your feet parallel to each other with a distance of about 10 cms between them. Let your arms hang down loosely from the shoulder-joints, close to your body with the palms open facing inwards and fingers straight and pointing down".
|Parsvanatha with seven-hooded cobra canopy, standing in kayotsarga pose, Chakravarti Paloja, Gulbarga, Southern India, 12th century. Black shale sculpture. f V and A London.|