NOTE: With the translation of Krishnamacharya's second book Yogasanagalu ( Mysore 1941 - 3rd edition with additional chapter 1972) now complete, I'm just putting the finishing touches on a free to download edition of the full text that will be available for personal study on the Free Download page at the top of the blog.
First edit of the full text can be downloaded for personal study from here.http://tinyurl.com/z9jy7cp
(future edits to come perhaps with some of my own notes on the text)
|First draft available for free download for personal study from here|
My sincerest gratitude to Satya for doing all the hard work of translating, to Sraddha for sending me the original text back in 2010 and to Quique for formatting the asana table.
Below is the final section on Pranayama from the additional 1972 chapter in the third edition of the text.
I've included the earlier sections on pranayama from the original text in the appendix.
Final chapter from Krishnamacharya's Yogasanagalu (3rd edition 1972) Part II PranayamMany of my old students from Kannada land are requesting me to write about pranayama practice for propagation. Therefore, I’m writing about it. Since the current generation are developing a keen sense of intellect:
अनन्तं पारं बहुवेदितव्यं अल्पस्च कालः बहवस्च विघ्नाः।
यत् सारभूतं तत् उपाददीतहंसो यथा क्षीरमिवांबु मिश्रं॥
As per this saying from a great man, since it is impossible to write about innumerable varieties of “pranayama”, I’m only going to write about three important one according to my Guru’s teachings.
1 ) Nadishodhana, 2) Ujjayi and 3) Sheetali are the most important ones. These can be practiced by both men and women. The first one purifies the blood and blood vessels. The second one purifies the gut and the lungs, eliminates phlegm and provides good sleep. The third one eliminates poisons from nadis (channels), nodules, internal receptacles and joints and helps keep the body temperature in equilibrium. Cures indigestion, improves life-span, energy and memory. These benefits are obtained from all three types of pranayama.
However, those who want to practice pranayama must be proficient mainly in shirshasana, sarvangasana, mahamudra and baddha padmasana. They must also be be practicing brahmacharya, pativratya (faithful in relations), consuming satvic food, and practice japa and meditation with faith. From time immemorial, vedas, sutras, puranas and prose and poetry have been advertised in different times. In Kruta yuga (time period) the dharma of mental psychology and yoga dharma was propagated through the vedas, in Dwapara yuga through vedas and sutras, in Treta yuga via the medium of vedas, sutras and puranas. In Kali yuga (current period), vedas, sutras, puranas, prose and poetic medium is being utilized for the propagation of yoga dharma. These prose and poetry are called smrutis, bhashyas and suktis by people according to their custom.
If any dharma and custom is to be beneficial to society, it has to be written down as root manuscripts according to any civilization. This is generally called law and justice. Shouldn’t the yoga dharma be propagated by Indian’s in this period of Kali yuga by way of sutra, purana, prose and poetry?
After contemplating on all this, in order to bring out the essence, the great saint Sri Bhagat Patanjali created yogasutras, Vyasa rishi generated bhashya in prose style in order to demonstrate the correct way for mankind. In doing so, they deserved glory. Similarly many great rishis have written yoga manuscripts. Yoga related upanishads are also well known. These are eternal, immemorial and momentous.
Many Kannada writers have also published yoga dharma manuscripts in Kannada language. The three types of pranayama practices mentioned before are also discussed in these kannada manuscripts. Those teachers who study these manuscripts and teach the public will protect the people. Those who don’t will cause much harm.
Nadi shodana pranayama
Before learning to practice pranayama it is very important to know the meaning of classical terminology:
Pranayama: duration of breath
Rechaka:Exhalation of breath
Puraka: Inhalation of breath
Antahkumbhaka: Holding of breath after inhalation
Bahyahkumbhaka: Holding of breath after exhalation ( do not inhale immediately after exhalation)
Kumbhaka: Holding of breath
These four states of pranavayu must be long. Then only it is called pranayama. In order to learn the limit of these duration, we have to know the differences. There are two types of pranayama called samavrutti and vishamavrutti. Householders must use baddhapadma and siddhasana for others.
If the duration of rechaka, puraka and antahkumbhaka are the same, it is called samavrutti pranayama. If there are differences, then it is called vishamavrutti pranayama.
Rechaka 5 seconds, puraka 5 seconds, antahkumbhaka 5 seconds, is called samavrutti pranayama. Start with 5 seconds and gradually increase to 20 seconds. Maximum should be not more than 30 seconds. All rechaka and puraka practice (not for kumbhaka), must be subtle, slow, long and must be accompanied by remembrance of house holder deity and mantra. One must not indulge in surprise or fear of 30 second duration. By gradual increase it is possible to reach it in 3 months. Power of prana is the basis of long lifespan.
In vishamavrutti pranayama, puraka 5 seconds, kumbhaka 20 seconds and rechaka 10 seconds. Rechaka must be twice the length of puraka and kumbhaka 4 times. Here know that kumbhaka is antahkumbhaka. First start with samavrutti and only after we are adept in it, we should start vishamavrutti. Otherwise, you may get chest pain. Those who are unable to do vishamavrutti can only practice samavrutti. The basic tenet of Patanjali, Upavarsha and Varshaganya rishis is that one must practice yoga with deep inhalations and exhalations. Sit facing east or north direction.
If we examine the Rishi traditions, rechaka puraka and kumbhaka is performed while holding both sides of the nose just below the bony part using right fingers.
Starting from the right thumb fold the second and third fingers on the inside and extend and join the pinky fingers and the ring finger next to it and press the left nostril while holding the right nostril pressed with the right thumb.
This position is called the “Mrugee mudra”. While holding in this position, our palm is in the form of a deer face. Therefore, the name. By employing this hold, prana flows only in the targeted nadis (channels). Nitya and Kamya are two types of pranayama. Mrugee mudra is used for nitya pranayama while Hamsa mudra and Sookari mudra are used for Kamya pranayama. No need to discuss these details. Patanjala yoga sutra bhashya only mentions “pranayama” and does not discuss details or different types. Please see “Yogamakaranda” and “Yoganjali” texts for more details.
While doing rechaka and puraka on the right side, left nostril must be pressed tightly and while doing rechaka, puraka on the left side, right nostril is pressed tightly. During kumbhaka, both nostrils are held tightly using “Mrugee mudra”
Om Shantih Shantih Shantih
Notes on Pranayama in the 1941 first edition of Yogasanagalu
First series requires many yogasanas and some pranayama
Second series needs some easy asanas and three pranayamas
Third series requires pranayama, pratyahara, dharana, dhyana and samadhi
Later a table is shown that includes these.
Yoga practitioners must perform pranayama on an individual basis. However, yogasanas can be performed individually or as a group.
Most important asanas shirshasana, sarvangasana, mayurasana, paschimatanasana and baddha padmasana must be practiced daily without failure.
Other asanas are practiced according to their convenience as people become proficient.
By practicing shirshasana, sarvangasana and thier variations at very early morning, great benefits are obtained.
Those who want to expand intelligence, heart energy and Jnanendriayas (sense organs) must practice these asanas ( shirshasana and sarvangasana) for long periods.
After practicing this, practice 15 minutes of one of the pranayama routines followed by 5 minutes of shavasana, without failure.
There are many types of pranayama. The special pranavayu kriya sadhana that improves life expectancy, brightens prana, corrects inhalation and exhalation from lungs is called “pranayama.”
The radiance that shines on the face and other organs is called prana shakti. Some people call it as atma shakti.
This radiance seems to disappear from the face and different organs in a person with disease.
We see that the radiance is totally lost in all parts of a dead body.
We need to try to improve this radiance day by day.
The only way to improve this is by the 4th step of yoganga called “pranayama.”
The basis of pranic energy is prana vayu(air). This is not like the air around us. It is very subtle, with amazing lighting speed like a warm flood of radiance.
This is hidden in the chest cavity. The cavity is between the two lungs.
The same place is the location of the atma and the antaryami (inner controller). The bright radiance exists because of them.
When its movement is normal, the pulse from the heart is regular and our life is full of hope and joy.
If this is poisoned, our movements become slow and ultimately becomes stop and go. Finally the heart and the organs stop working and the body’s radiant brightness disappears. This stage is called death in common language.
To summarize this,
“यावत्प्रानः स्थितो देहे तावज्जीवनमुच्यते”
“Yavatpranah sthito dehe tavajjivanamuchyate”
meaning, our bodies are only alive until the pranavayu and pranashakti takes residence and keep it radiant, once they are lost, there is no life according to people who have experience in yoga shastra.
In order to make this pranavayu and prana shakti always permeate our body, there are three important types of pranayama - 1. Suryabhedana 2. Ujjayi 3. Sheetali
Exhale slowly and deeply through the right nostril (keeping the left nostril closed with the right pinky and ring fingers). After a brief interval, inhale in the same way with the same nostril. After, hold your breath as per capacity (5 seconds initially) exhale through the left nostril the the same way as described before (close the right nostril tightly with the right thumb and loosen the two fingers on the left side). Inhalation and retention are same as before. During retention, both nostrils must be closed by the respective fingers.
Exhalation is “rechaka”, inhalation is “puraka” and retention is “kumbhaka” according to Yoga shastra. How many rechaka we perform, the same number of puraka and kumbhaka must be performed. This is Suryabhedana. Right side puraka, left side rechaka, and no puraka on left side according to some.
This improves pranavayu, pranashakti, knowledge and life expectancy.
Slowly and deeply Inhaling through both nostrils (puraka) while creating a sound in the back of the throat, hold (as per one’s ability) and then exhale (rechaka) through the right nostril. After this, as before, puraka and kumbhaka and then exhale through the left nostril. Afterwards Puraka. This increases appetite, improves digestive fire and cleanses the bile ducts.
Folding the tip of the tongue like a boat and pushing it out about half an inch in front of the puckered lips, keeping it tight as per ability, perform puraka and kumbhaka through the boat shaped tounge. During kumbhaka, the tongue must be withdrwan inside the mouth. Rechaka procedure is similar to that of Ujjayi pranayama.
During exhalation (rechaka) phase of the second and third pranayama, hand and finger positions must be held as described in suryabhedana pranayama.
This reduces thirst, heat in the head, chest pain and vertigo.
Three Bandhas 1. Moolabandha 2. Uddiyanabandha and 3. Jaladarabandha. Bandha means - binding, tying or confining. When you are practicing the yoganga called pranayama, the central part of the body from the base of the reproductive parts to the neck region must be tied up on our own volition. Without these three bandhas, full benefits of pranayama can not be achieved for sure. Therefore, practitioners must do this carefully. 1. Moolabhanda characteristics (in Hatahyogapradipika) Procedure for binding पार्श्णिभागेन संपीड्य योनिमाकुंचयद्गुदं अपानमूर्ध्वमत्क्रुश्य मूलबंधोऽ भिधीयते॥ Parshnibhagena sampidya yonimakunchayeddgudam| Apanamoordhwamatkrushya moolabhandho bhidhiyate|| Summary: Sit while pressing the perineum with the heel, contract the rectum firmly, withdraw and hold the lower abdomen. Reason for the name अधोगतिमपानं वै ऊर्ध्वगं कुरुते बलात्। आकुंचेन तं प्राहुर्मूलभंदं हि योगिनः॥ Adhogatimapanam vai oordhwagam kurute balat| Aakunchena tam prahurmoolabhandam hi yoginah|| Summary: This forces the apanavayu to flow upwards rather than down the rectum which can cause weakness. Therefore, this is called Moolabhanda. According to yogi’s common usage, moola means, the bad vayu (prana) that can cause the musculature of the lower abdomen to become weak. Special procedure गुदं पार्श्ण्या तु संपीड्य पायुमाकुंचयेत् बलात्। वारं वारं यथा चोर्ध्वं समायति स्मीरणः॥ Gudam parshrnya tu sampeedya paayumakuchayetat balat| varam varam yatha chordhwam samayati sameeranah|| Summary: Firmly press the perineum from the heels of both feet, contract the inner rectum tightly, move the lower abdomen back and forth. Benefits of moolabhanda प्रानापानौ नादबिंदू मूलभंदेन चैकताम्। गत्वा योगस्य संसिद्धिं यच्चतो नात्र संशयः॥ praanapanou nadabindu moolabhandena chaikatam| gatva yogasya samsiddhim yachhato natra samshayah|| Summary: By practicing moolabhanda, pranavayu, apanavayu, hrudayadhwani and veeryabindu are united resulting in yogic benefits. Special benefits अपानप्राणयोरैक्यं क्शयो मूत्रपुरीषयोः। युवा भवति व्रुद्धोऽपि सततं मूलभंधनात्॥ Apanapranayoraikyam kshayo mootrapurishayoh| yuva bhavati vruddhopi statam moolabandhanat|| Summary: The union of pranavayu and apanavayu reduces the frequency of urination and defecation. Those who practice regularly feel youthfulness even in old age. 2. Uddiyanabandha The basis for its name from Hathayogapradipika- बद्धो येन सुषुम्नायां प्रानस्तूड्डीयते यतः। तस्मादुड्डीयनाख्योऽयं योगिभिस्समुदाह्रुतः॥ Baddho yena sushumnayam praanastuddiyate yatah| Tasmaduddiyanachoyam yogibhissamudahrutah|| Summary: The part of the body when tightly bound makes pranavayu which is the basis of life move in the form of a fine thread along the spinal cord all the way to Brahma randhra (center of brain) within the Sushumna nadi (channel) is called uddiyanabandha. Characteristics of Uddiyanabandha उदरे पश्चिमं तानं नाभेरूर्ध्वं समाचरेत्। उड्डियाणो ह्यसो बन्धो म्रुत्युमातंगकेसरि॥ Udare paschimam tanam nabheroordhwam samacharet| Uddiyano hyaso bandho mrutyumatangakesari|| Summary: Along with the navel, draw in the lower and upper abdomen to press against the back bones (spine) tightly. When practicing this, perform a deep rechaka (exhalation) in the utkatasana state, draw in the abdomen tightly holding breath for a little while. This is like a lion for the intoxicated elephant, meaning the man who performs this has no fear of death. Those who have a big tummy must try to reduce the abdominal fat by performing many asanas and then can practice this. Such (obese) people must develop a solid paschimotanasana practice. In addition, strong rechaka (exhalation) must also be developed. Its benefits उड्डियाणं तु सहजं गुरुणा कथितं सदा। अभ्यसेत्सततं यस्तु व्रुद्धोऽपि तरुणायते॥ Uddiyanam tu sahajam kathitam sada| Abhyasetsatatam yastu vruddhopi tarunayate|| Summary: Those who practice this bandha daily according to the teachings of the guru, they will retain youthful vigor even in old age. नाभेरूर्ध्वमदस्चापि तानं कुर्यात् प्रयत्नतः। षण्मासमभ्यसेन्म्रुत्युं जयत्येव न संशयः॥ Naabheroordhwamadaschapi tanam kuryat prayatnatah| Shanmasamabhyasenmrutyum jayatyeva na samshayah|| Summary: Those who practice uddiyanabandha systematically by drawing in the upper and lower abdominal regions tightly so as to touch the back bone will achieve immortality. 3. Jalandharabandha कंठमाकुंच्य ह्रुदये स्थापयेच्चिबुकं द्रुढं। बंधो जालंधराख्योऽयं जराम्रुत्युविनाशकः॥ Kantamakucha hrudaye sthapayochhibukam drudam| Bandho jaalandharachyoyam jaramrutyuvinashakah|| Summary: Bend the neck down, press the chin against the chest and hold tightly - this is called Jalandharabandha. This overcomes old age and death. Reason for this name बद्नाति हि सिराजालमधोगामि नभोजलं। ततो जालंधरोबन्धः कंठदुखौघनाशनः॥ badnati hi sirajalamadhogami nabhojalam| tato jaalandharobnadah kantaduchoghanashanah|| Summary: The essence of brain is blocked from going down, this is called jalandarabandha. “Jala” means essense of the brain, a flood of this is called “Jaala” and to hold or bear this is called “jaalandhara”. The more concentrated this brain essence, greater will be the memory power. Special benefits जालंधरे क्रुते बन्धे कंठसंकोचलक्शणे। न पियूषं पतत्यग्नौ न च वायुः प्रकुप्यति॥ Jaalandhare krute bandhe kantasankochalakshane| Na piyusham patatyagnou na cha vayuh prakupyati|| Summary: In the practitioner who performs the above described bandha according to the instructions of his guru, brain essence can not be destroyed by the jataragni. In addition, relief from gas related abdominal bloating is also achieved. In Pranayama, all three bandhas must be practiced. After rechaka, one must do jalandharabandha, moolabandha and uddiyanabandha while after puraka, moolabandha and jalandarabandha must be followed without fail during pranayama. In yogashastra, one must do 320 pranayamas everyday. This means that it was classfied as 80 in the morning, 80 in the afternoon, 80 in the evening and 80 in mid-night. Since this is impossible, one can do 80 pranayama in one sitting. The reason is that now a days, you need to spend more time working to support your life. Benefits are delayed too. Rechaka, puraka and kumbhaka when practiced with equal time and equal numbers are called “Samavrutti pranayama.” When practiced with variations (increase and/or decrease) in time and numbers it is called “Vishamavrutti pranayama”. Those who learn it from a Guru will learn to practice properly. Those who are not proficient in yogasana will not be able to get expertise in pranayama. Women who are not pregnant have equal rights as men. Even in pregnancy they have the right to practice samasankya samavrutti pranayama. However, after the 6-month of pregnancy, they can not practice that (samavrutti pranayama) also. Yoganga applies equally to both men and women except during pregnancy - please remember this. Some are saying that Nauli, Neti, Vasti, Vajroli, Dhauti, Khechari etc., kriyas are also part of yoganga and propagating such information through various texts is very unfortunate. Any text that shows a list of yogangas does not say so. “Hatayogapradipika” lists them under a separate heading “Shatkriyas” and in the same text clearly states that everyone should not practice it. मेदःश्लेश्माधिकः पूर्वं षटकर्माणि समाचरेत्। अन्यस्तु नाचरेत्तानि दोषाणां समभावतः॥ Medha shleshmadhikah poorvam shatkarmani samacharet| Anystu nacharettani doshanam samabhavatah|| Therefore, we should pay attention to this rule and use it only as treatment for certain diseases such as those caused by excess fat.
NOTE: With the translation of Krishnamacharya's second book Yogasanagalu ( Mysore 1941 - 3rd edition with additional chapter 1972) now complete, I'm just putting the finishing touches on a free to download edition of the full text that will be available on the Free Download page at the top of the blog.