This blog is essentially 'sleeping'.

I've deleted or returned to draft 80% of the blog, gone are most, if not all, of the videos I posted of Pattabhi Jois, gone are most of the posts regarding my own practice as well as most of my practice videos in YouTube, other than those linked to my Vinyasa Yoga Practice Book).

Mostly I've just retained the 'Research' posts, those relating to Krishnamacharya in particular.

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Thursday, 31 January 2013

Interview With Krishnamacharya


from Yogacarya Krishnamacharya - The Purnacarya. Edited by Mala Srivatsan
The first biography of Krishnamacharya


Unfortunately long out of print


"Q: What does the bhakti mean to a person who has no belief in Isvara?

Krishnamacharya: Love is bhakti for them".

------------------------

The questions.

1. What is Yogasana?

2. What is the role of the mantra in asana practice?

3. What should the duration of pranava be during recitation?

4. What is the first step in dhyana for a beginner?

5. At what age can one start practicing yogasanas?

6. How many asanas are there?

7. Can everybody do all of the asana's?

8. Should asana vary according to age?

9. Can a person practice yogasana using photographs?

10. How many times should one practice yogasana's?

11. How long should a person stay in an asana every day?

12. How long were the sages practicing yoga?

13. What must form an essential part of a person's daily practice?

14. What should be done when there is limited time available for practice?

15. When can one see the results of practice?

16. What should be the ratio of practice between asana, pranayama and dhyana?

17. Should the asana practice be done fast and why not?

18. What does jitasana (asana jay am) mean?

19. What is meant by jitsvasam?

20. How long should one stay in Sirsasana and Sarvangasana?

21. Is there a difference in the practice for men and women?

22. How should very obese people and pregnant womnen be taught?

23. What about the practice for women after child birth?

24. What is yoga?

25. How many kinds of Yoga are there?

26. Who is competent to the practice the yogabhyasa?

27. What is yogabyasa krama?

28. What is the procedure one follows for yoga?

29. Why is there the division of hatha-yoga and raja-yoga?

30.On what basis do we follow the practice of yogasana? 

40. Is there any relation between the approach to sickness in Nathamuni's school and Ayurveda?

41. Is it possible to learn pratyahara and antaranga sadhana from a teacher?

42. How many kinds of vinyasa's are there?

43. There seems to be identical verses in Sivasamhita, Gherenda Samhita and hatha yoga pradipka. Does it mean they are all based on the same text or did they have a common teacher?

44. Which is the most important yoga text today?

45. Are the techniques like viloma pranayama, anuloma pranayama, pratiloma pranayama, the different asanas and vinyasas that we use mentioned in any adhara grant (text)? or does it follow a guru parampara?

46. How are the texts like Goraksa Samhita and the Hathayoga pradipka compare with the approach of the Yoga Sutra?

47. Why should one do vaidika-sastriya karma?

48. Why should there be upasana of the devata?

49. But this becomes kamayam. is it desirable?

50. What is dharma? Please explain in simple terms.

51. Thare are many approaches to the word 'Yoga', Which of these have to be refuted?

52. What is Adarmika yoga?

53. Where in the Yoga Sutra is the Sadanga yoga of nathamuni mentioned?

54. What is the evidence that bhakti alone leads to multi?

55. What does the bhakti mean to a person who has no belief in Isvara?

56. What is the difference between prakrti and prapancam?

57. Prakrti that has guns-s is mentioned as acaitanyam. haow is this?

58. How can there be a samyoga between the prakrti, paramatma and the jivatma?

59. What is Jnana yoga?

60. Are bhakti and prapatti the same?

61. What is Raja yoga?

62. Does Hatha yoga mean a forceful yoga?

63. Some people describe that the kundalini goes through the susumna to the sahasrara. is it correct?

64. What happens to the kundalini when the highest of hathayoga is mastered?

65. Is dhyana, dharana, samadhi a sadhana or a siddhi?

66. Should yama and niyama, precede the practice of asana and pranayama?

67. Yoga means to join. It is like many grains together?

68. When there is samyoga, how will there be viniyoga again? Is it also an activity? If so how does it happen?

69. What does prapancam mean? is it sat yam?

70. Is there any significance attached to our dress and to the sati to which we belong?

71. Is brahmacarya practiced in grhasthasrama? What is the difference between a brahmacarya in grathasrama and a brahmacarya in a brahmacarya asrama?

72. It has been said that our mind is linked to the kind of food we eat. What about our other samaras and  sahavasam?

73. There are many texts on Yoga. Which of them are important and which are less important?

74. Where is the evidence that Visnu is sattvika devam, siva rajasika devam and sakti tamasika devam?

75. How is it that we are able to understand the suksma visaya that has been mentioned in the sastras?

76. What is the difference between sa-guna and nir-guna?

77.  What is your message to humanity?



The Answers













Monday, 28 January 2013

What did Krishnamacharya study with his Guru in Tibet- Yogacarya Krishnamacharya - The Purnacarya. Edited by Mala Srivatsan


from Yogacarya Krishnamacharya - The Purnacarya. Edited by Mala Srivatsan
The first biography of Krishnamacharya

Unfortunately long out of print
NB: Italics in brackets are my explanatory notes





"Krishnamacharya went searching for the ashram of Rama Mohana Brahmacari. In a cave, a very tall hermit with a long beard, wearing wooden shoes stood at the entrance. It was evident to Krishnamacharya that this was his guru. He prostrated before him, gave his name and asked to be his disciple. Krishnamacharya was questioned in Hindi on the reason for his visit. After he expressed his desire to learn yoga he was called in. He met his guru's wife and three children. he was given fruits called Ankula to eat and the escorts who accompanied him were dismissed with a cup of tea.

Krishnamacharya's first instruction from his guru was, to take a bath and perform acamana. The first precept of pranayama was then taught. For eight days, the master said he would not teach him anything else and that Krishnamacharya should eat only fruits.

Thereafter Krishnamacharya became a part of the Rama Brahmacari's family who belonged to the Kasyapa gotta (family lineage). His daily food was chapathu (Indian bread), halwa ( a paste of vegetable or fruits sweetened along with ghee and tea). His period of gurukulam (stay with the guru ) in Tibet lasted for seven and a half years. Rama Mohana Brahmacari made him memorise the entire Yoga Kurantam in the Gurkha language. The various stages of Patanjali's Yoga Sutra were dealt with in that book. Various kinds of of yoga practises were also described with great clarity. Only with the help of Yoga Kurantam' could he understand the inner meanings and science of the Yoga Sutra. The first three years he was made to memorise the Yoga texts in the form of adhyayanam ( to memorise and recite correctly, with proper accents). His focus was in the study of the Yoga Sutra, Vyasa Bhasya and the Samkhya Darsana. In the next three years he practiced yogabhyasa and for the next one and a half years he studied the siksana krama (planning of practices based on the stage of life of an individualand the cikitsa krama (therapeutic approach).

During his seven and a half year stay with his guru, Krishnamacharya learnt all aspects of yoga practice, therapy and philosophy. His capacity to learn, his previous education and his discipline made him an ideal student.

Having spent seven and a half years with his guru he would happily have spent the rest of his life learning and serving him but Rama Mohana Brahmacari then told him to go back to society, lead the life of a married man and spread the message of Yoga. Following his guru's words he returned from Tibet in 1922"

Yogacarya Krishnamacharya - The Purnacarya. Edited by Mala Srivatsan p26-28


-----------------------------------------------

from Yoga Makaranda T. Krishnamacharya
"This text contains the essential concepts from many texts of antiquity listed below.
I have studied the texts listed below under the blessing of a great teacher and have explained the truths contained in them that I have personally experienced. I request that the Lord of the auspicious Karnataka throne, the great Lord and Emperor, the fourth Sri Krishna Rajendra, accept this work and allow my
humble self to fulfil my endeavor and bless me.
More than this, I have nothing to say in this preface.

Bibliography
1. Rajayoga Ratnakaram
2. Hathayoga Pradipika
3. Yoga Saravalli
4. Yoga Balaprathipikai
5. Ravana Nadi (Nadi Pariksa of Ravana) 6. Bhairava Kalpam
7. Sri Tattvanidhi
8. Yoga Ratnakarandam
9. Mano Narayaneeyam
10. Rudrayameelam (Rudrayamalam)
11. Brahmayameelam
12. Atharvana Rahasyam
13. Patanjala Yogadarshanam
14. Kapilasutram
15. Yogayajnavalkyam
16. Gheranda Samhita
17. Narada Pancharatra Samhita
18. Satvata Samhita
19. Siva Samhita
20. Dhyana Bindu Upanishad
21. Chandilya Upanishad
22. Yoga Shika Upanishad
23. Yoga Kundalya Upanishad
24. Ahir Buddhniya Samhita
25. Nada Bindu Upanishad
26. Amrita Bindu Upanishad
27. Garbha Upanishad


Thirty Minor Upanishads

tr. by K. Narayanasvami Aiyar

[1914]



--------------------------------

from Yogasanagaly T. Krishnamacharya
I did not attempt a detailed review of all ancient yoga treatises since it will make this book very long and perhaps cause boredom to the readers.  Please forgive.  This writing is mainly based on the following texts:
Patanjalayogasutra
Hathayogapradipika
Rajayogaratnakara
Yogakuranti
Upanishads related to yoga
Learning’s from my Guru and self-experience

-------------------------

I'll be adding more links to the available free online editions of as many of these texts over the next couple of days.
Feel free to come through with any links you have to online editions in the comments, unfortunately I didn't make a note of where mine came from and will have to hunt them down again.



Thursday, 24 January 2013

Krishnamacharya on Samyama in Yogasanagalua and Yoga makaranda ( part II) Chakras, Jivatma, Paramata etc




Samyama (from Sanskrit संयम saṃ-yama—holding together, tying up, binding[1]). Combined simultaneous practice of Dhāraṇā (concentration), Dhyāna (meditation) & Samādhi (union). A tool to receive deeper knowledge of qualities of the object. It is a term summarizing the "catch-all" process of psychological absorption in the object of meditation.[2]
Samyama, as Patanjali's Yoga Sutras states, engenders prajñā. Adi Yoga or Mahasandhi discusses the 'mūla prajñā' of "listening/studying, investigation/contemplation, realization/meditation" which are a transposition of the triune of Samyama. These are activated subconsciously in non-structured form (thus producing fragmented spontaneous Samyama-like effects) by any thinking activity or contemplative absorption (particularly the Catuskoti and Koan[2]) and deep levels of trance. Any kind of intuitive thinking at its various stages of expression is strongly related to Samyama-like phenomena as well.
from Wikipedia



I noticed that Krishnamacharya discusses Samyama in both Yogasanagalu, in the Special instructions section translated by Satya in my previous post, and in Yoga Makaranda ( part II), released by AG Mohan and formally known as Salutations to the Teacher and the Eternal one. As Yoga Makaranda (part II) has been difficult to date exactly I thought it would be interesting to look at the two together.

Krishnamacharya on Samyama from Yogasanagalu (1941)


Yogadharshana and other shastras have described:

Yama   5 types
Niyama   5 types
Asana  Countless
Pranayama 128 types
Pratyahara 2 types
Dharana  2 types
Dhyana  2 types
Samadhi  8 types

Yogasanas are the third step in the yoganga sadhana.

The sadhana practice that combines dharana, dhyana and samadhi is called “samyama” as per  “ त्रयमेकत्र संयमः” “trayamekatra samyamah”  ( Patanjali sutra 3,  4).  From this yogis can discover what can’t be seen by the eyes.

Yogasanas are coutnless, this is clearly suggested in Dhyanabindupanishat that lord Shiva gave spiritual advice to Parvati as “ आसनानि च तावन्ति यावत्तो जीवरशयः” (asanani cha tavanti yavatto jeevarashayah).  Despite this, many people still proclaim that there are only 84 asanas.  Hatha yogapradipika which serves as a fundamental yoga text says:

वसिश्ठाद्यैश्च मुनिभिः मत्सेंद्राश्च योगिभिः।
अंगीक्रुतान्यासनानि कथ्यन्ते कानि चिन्मया॥
(Hathayogapradipika, 1, 18)

Vasishtadyishcha munibihi matsyendradyishcha yogibihi।
Angeekrutanyasanani kathyante kani chinmaya ॥

(I proceed to describe some of the Asana’s accepted by the sages as Vasistha and Yogins such as Matsyendra.)

It has been accepted by Vasishta and other rishis along with yogis Matsyendranatha and Gorakanatha that there are innumerable yoga postures.  However, isn’t it amazing that many still insist that there are only eighty four postures!

It has been described by Patanjali Maharshi that in yoganga there are three parts: bahiranga (outer) sadhana, antaranga (inner) sadhana and paramantaranga sadhana.

त्रयमंतरंगं पूर्वेभ्यः।
तदपि बहिरंगं निर्भीज्स्य​॥

Trayamantarangam poorvebhyaha।
Tadapi bahirangam nirbheejasya॥
Patanjali Sutra (3, 7-8)

(The three are the internal limb from the previous.3-7
That also external limb to without seed. 3-8 )

The first five steps of the eight mentioned before are well known as “bahiranga sadhana”  The remaining three are widely known as “antaranga sadhana.”  Only nirvikalpa samadhi is classified under “paramantarana sadhana”.  Samyama also comes under antaranga sadhana.

Diseases that can be observed by the main sense organs such as eyes and ears, those affecting body parts such as  hands and legs, sense organs  (eye, ear, nose, tongue etc. ), muscles, lungs, nadis and nadi granthis, bones and spaces between the bones can be eliminated and the body made powerful by practicing the five bahiranga sadhanas - yama, niyama, asana, pranayama and pratyahara.

Although it can not be observed by the main sense organs, the jeeva or soul that is hidden within the body and experiences countless suffering and joys according to followers of Visishtadwita and Dwita philosophies, in the mind as per Sankhya followers, reflection of jeevatma according to some yogis and Advita followers.  The mind (its ability to experience) with attributes of wanderings and restraint by way of the heart (called Dahara and Kuhara) is rooted above and below in the following chakras:

Mooladhara chakra - below the navel and above the reproductive organs
Swadishtana - between mooladhara and manipuraka
Manipuraka - exactly on the navel (belly button)
Anahuta - middle of the heart
Vishuddi chakra - below the neck
Agna - between the eye brows
Sahasrara - crown of the head

Encompassing these seven chakras (nadi granthis) are 1. Avrutti, 2. Parivruti and 3. Samvruti.
The movement (activation) of these chakras are caused by the greatness (power) of pranayama and the variety of rechaka, puraka and kumbhaka.

Along with these, ‘antaranga sadhana”  practices of dharana, dhyana and samadhi stabiliizes the wandering, drifting and roving mind, eliminates mental illness and worries, enhances life expectancy, intellectual power and expands the mind to new ideas.

Along with these, by practicing antaranga sadhana called “samyama”, yoga practitioners may see subtle substances that are not visible to the naked eye (without using modern instruments) and can know the truth. This type of samyama is called antardrushti, divyadrushti or yogadrushti.  The details of this can be understood by studying Sutras  “नाभिचक्रे कार्यव्यूहझानम्”  “nabhichakre karyafyoohagnanam” (3,29).

Who is Jeevatma?  Who is Paramatma?  What is the relationship between the two?  Many of these principles can be understood by practicing “nirvikalpa samadhi” which is well known as Paramantaranga sadhane.

------------------------------------

Krishnamacharya on Samyama from Yoga Makaranda ( Part II) p 81-84

CONCEPT OF SAMYAMA:
In these classifications, asanas occupy the third step. 

When DHARANA, DHYANA and SAMADHI are practised together then this practice is called SAMYAMA. 

The expert in the practice of SAMYAMA is called SAMYAMI. See Patanjala Yoga Darshana Chapter III Sutra 4. 

By practice of SAMYAMA, the SAMYAMI discovers the truths that are not known to others easily and is capable of accomplishing easily the things that are most difficult for others. See Patanjala Yoga Darshana. 

Lord Shiva has communicated to Mother Parvathi that the asanas are as numerous as the living species in the universe. Atmaram, the author of the HATHA YOGA PRADIPIKA says in chapter I verse 18 that he is going to deal with only a few of the asanas practised by the RISHIS like VASISHTA and MUNIS like MATSYENDRA and GORAKSHA. In spite of this there are people who say that there are only 84 asanas and we find it difficult to accept the correctness of the statement.

There are three kinds of YOGANGA SADHANA which are:

BAHIRANGA, 

ANTARANGA and 
PARAMANTARANGA.
See Patanjala Darshana Chapter III Sutras 7 and 8 for more details.


Of the eight steps, from Yama to Pratyahara is called BAHIRANGA SADHANA; the other three ANTARANGA SADHANA; - NIRVIKALPA SAMADHI, one of the eight kinds of SAMADHI is called PARAMANTARANGA SADHANA. Samyama comes under ANTARANGA SADHANA. BAHIRANGA SADHANA cures all the diseases of and affections to those parts of the body which are apparent to the senses of sight, hearing and smell. It is called BAHIRANGA SADHANA as the sadhana affects those parts which are apparent to the senses. ANTARANGA SADHANA applies to the mind, the brain and the heart, working of which are not directly visible to man and cures all the diseases relative to them.

The PARAMANTARANGA SADHANA teaches us the truth about the existence of God and the Soul in man and leads him in the way to realise the JIVATMA and PARAMATMA. This way is called NIRVIKALPA SAMADHI. 

Heart is a mass of flesh of the size of the thumb from its extremity to its first joint. It is located 12 inches right above the navel. The heart is located above and below the NADI GRANTHIS or CAKRAS - seven in number.
See NARAYANA UPANISHAD for more particulars.


It will be observed that this HRIDAYA which we shall call HEART is different from the heart as understood by the modern medical science which is situated in the left side of the body. MANAS - the mind - has its seat in a whole in the heart and it is in the shape of an effulgence only inferior to the PARAMATMA and the JIVATMA. The MANAS understands even things which are above the KARMENDRIYAS and the GNANENDRIYAS like joy, sorrow. Though limited by the physical body, it is capable of experiencing infinite joy and pain. In its proper working, distractions and serene rest has its above in the HEART. VISHISTADWAITAS and DWAITAS say that joy and sorrow are experienced by the Jivas. SANKHYAS, Yogis and ADWAITAS say that the reflection of the soul in the ANTAKARANA experiences pain and joy. It is beside our study whether PARAMATMA is capable of experiencing joy and sorrow. 

We have mentioned that there are seven CAKRAS supporting the HRIDAYA. They are:

1. MULADHARA CAKRA - between the root of the reproductory organs and anus.

2. SVADHISHTANA CAKRA -at the origin of the reproductory organ - between Muladhara and Manipura.

3. MANIPURA CAKRA - at the navel

4. ANAHATA CAKRA - at the heart

5. VISUDDHICAKRA - at the base of the throat

6. AGNA CAKRA - between the two eyebrows

7. SAHASRARA CAKRA - situated at the crown of the head.

The 7 Chakras are active in three ways.

AAVRITTI, 

PARIVRITTI, 
SAMVRITTI

AAVRITTi is due to Puraka, Rechaka and Kumbaka. 


PARIVRITTI is due to the proper control of the three Bandhas - MULA, JALANDHARA and UDDIYANA. 

SAMVRITTI is due to the variation in the length of the Rechaka and Kumbakha in Pranayama. 

The 7 Chakras mentioned above and the Manas are not visible to our naked eye. Joy and sorrow are feelings palpable only to the mind and for that reason, we do not deny their existence. So also certain changes inside our body have to be personally felt and they are not capable of physical demonstration. Even the modern advanced appliances like the x-ray can not reveal the existence of the feelings of the mind and the changes in the CAKRAS. But Samyamam mentioned in the Yoganga discovers the feelings and changes in one’s own mind and in others.

-------------------------------------

Translations: Translation of Yogasanagalu by Satya Miurthy, 

Translation of HYP from here http://rajayoga.home.xs4all.nl/EN/HathaYogaPradipika2003En.pdf
Translation of YS from Paul Harvey http://www.yogastudies.org/yoga-sutra-freenotes/yoga-sutra/yoga-sutra-overview/

More Yogasanagalu translation- Special instructions p70-83

The ongoing Krishnamacharya Yogasanagalu Translation project, sits on one of the page bars at the top of the blog ( below the main picture). 
Yogasana translation project

Satya Murthy's translation continues below with the long Special instructions chapter ( notes to come).

Krishnamacharya's Yogasanagalu p70


Special Instructions

One has to believe that the eight yoganga’s yama, niyama, asana, pranayama, pratyahara, dharana, dhyana and samadhi are the best way to bhakti sadhana and then practice.

Human development can not take place with just food, sleep and sexual pleasure. All animals experience this equally. Along with discovering the essence of jeevatma and paramatma, we must strive for energy that does not impair the mind due to rapid natural changes. The omnipresent, all pervading, all knowing, filled with the best qualities and who protects those who come to him, we must live under the orders of that Paramatma, acquiring wealth and property without going against what is prescribed in the shastras, taking a vow to dedicate the fruits of services back to him and to proclaim this in the world without any ego. Do not listen to those who are saying and publishing that “there is no God; it’s all a big hoax”. Those who practice yoga and their teachers must publicise the two foremost niyamas that are like a life force in this world - Brahmacharya and Pativratya.

We must not forget that various diseases afflicting people are mainly due to excess food, drinking and entertainment.

We must eat vegetarin food, speak the truth and one day a week practice silence (not speaking).

Fast once in 15 days and always display a pleasant personality.

The main factor that allows man to enjoy the comforts of life is the blessing of good health, this everyone agrees.

Knowing that “yogasana is the most important skill that provides such good health without too much cost and which is easily accessible to all castes and groups” our great  Bharat (Indian) ancestors have written many prominent texts so that we can practice according to the suggested niyamas and enjoy the fruits of practice.

This yoganga sadhana way is not new that was discovered recently.  These practices that were in vogue many thousands of years ago as witnessed in the vedas and puranas, have been resurrected.  Why all these statements?  Is Sri Bhagavad Gita, that is admired by all people of this world not enough?

Regarding the close relationship between yogasanas and body well-being-

हठस्य प्रथमां गत्वादासनं पूरवमुच्यते।
कुर्यात् तदासनं स्थैर्यं आरोग्यं चांगलाघवं॥
Hatasya prathamam gatvadasanam poorvamuchyate
kuryat tadasanam sthiryam aarogyam changalaghavam
(Hatha yoga pradipika, 1, 17)

Only yogasana makes it possible for humans to enjoy long life with healthy body and intellect by optimizing the unhindered movements of prana, apana, vyana, udana, samana and other ten different vayus along with purification of important and variety of nadis such as ida, pingala, poosha and yashaswini.  Swatmarama yogi states “without the well being of the body and the indriyas, the facile movement of the vayus will not take place, therefore, I will describe the yogasana kramas systematically and benefits resulting from practicing it.”   The basis of this is  “ ततो द्वन्द्वनबिघातः”
“tato dvandvanabighatah”  ( Patanjali sutra 2, 48).  Those who practice yogangasana are not bothered by cold, wind, sun, happiness, sorrow or to conditions of vata, pitta and kapha  according to Maharshi Bhagavat Patanjali.

Many thousands of years ago, these yoganga sadhanas were customary without any resistance.  However, it is my opinion that it is not our duty to figure out why these practices have disappeared now.

Yogadharshana and other shastras have described:

  1. Yama 5 types
  2. Niyama 5 types
  3. Asana Countless
  4. Pranayama 128 types
  5. Pratyahara 2 types
  6. Dharana 2 types
  7. Dhyana 2 types
  8. Samadhi 8 types

Yogasanas are the third step in the yoganga sadhana.

The sadhana practice that combines dharana, dhyana and samadhi is called “samyama” as per  “ त्रयमेकत्र संयमः” “trayamekatra samyamah”  ( Patanjali sutra 3,  4).  From this yogis can discover what can’t be seen by the eyes.

Yogasanas are coutnless, this is clearly suggested in Dhyanabindupanishat that lord Shiva gave spiritual advice to Parvati as “ आसनानि च तावन्ति यावत्तो जीवरशयः” (asanani cha tavanti yavatto jeevarashayah).  Despite this, many people still proclaim that there are only 84 asanas.  Hatha yogapradipika which serves as a fundamental yoga text says:

वसिश्ठाद्यैश्च मुनिभिः मत्सेंद्राश्च योगिभिः।
अंगीक्रुतान्यासनानि कथ्यन्ते कानि चिन्मया॥
(Hathayogapradipika, 1, 18)

Vasishtadyishcha munibihi matsyendradyishcha yogibihi।
Angeekrutanyasanani kathyante kani chinmaya ॥


It has been accepted by Vasishta and other rishis along with yogis Matsyendranatha and Gorakanatha that there are innumerable yoga postures.  However, isn’t it amazing that many still insist that there are only eighty four postures!

It has been described by Patanjali Maharshi that in yoganga there are three parts: bahiranga (outer) sadhana, antaranga (inner) sadhana and paramantaranga sadhana.

त्रयमंतरंगं पूर्वेभ्यः।
तदपि बहिरंगं निर्भीज्स्य​॥

Trayamantarangam poorvebhyaha।
Tadapi bahirangam nirbheejasya॥
Patanjali Sutra (3, 7-8)

The first five steps of the eight mentioned before are well known as “bahiranga sadhana”  The remaining three are widely known as “antaranga sadhana.”  Only nirvikalpa samadhi is classified under “paramantarana sadhana”.  Samyama also comes under antaranga sadhana.

Diseases that can be observed by the main sense organs such as eyes and ears, those affecting body parts such as  hands and legs, sense organs  (eye, ear, nose, tongue etc. ), muscles, lungs, nadis and nadi granthis, bones and spaces between the bones can be eliminated and the body made powerful by practicing the five bahiranga sadhanas - yama, niyama, asana, pranayama and pratyahara.

Although it can not be observed by the main sense organs, the jeeva or soul that is hidden within the body and experiences countless suffering and joys according to followers of Visishtadwita and Dwita philosophies, in the mind as per Sankhya followers, reflection of jeevatma according to some yogis and Advita followers.  The mind (its ability to experience) with attributes of wanderings and restraint by way of the heart (called Dahara and Kuhara) is rooted above and below in the following chakras:

  1. Mooladhara chakra - below the navel and above the reproductive organs
  2. Swadishtana - between mooladhara and manipuraka
  3. Manipuraka - exactly on the navel (belly button)
  4. Anahuta - middle of the heart
  5. Vishuddi chakra - below the neck
  6. Agna - between the eye brows
  7. Sahasrara - crown of the head

Encompassing these seven chakras (nadi granthis) are 1. Avrutti, 2. Parivruti and 3. Samvruti.
The movement (activation) of these chakras are caused by the greatness (power) of pranayama and the variety of rechaka, puraka and kumbhaka.

Along with these, ‘antaranga sadhana”  practices of dharana, dhyana and samadhi stabiliizes the wandering, drifting and roving mind, eliminates mental illness and worries, enhances life expectancy, intellectual power and expands the mind to new ideas.  

Along with these, by practicing antaranga sadhana called “samyama”, yoga practitioners may see subtle substances that are not visible to the naked eye (without using modern instruments) and can know the truth. This type of samyama is called antardrushti, divyadrushti or yogadrushti.  The details of this can be understood by studying Sutras  “नाभिचक्रे कार्यव्यूहझानम्”  “nabhichakre karyafyoohagnanam” (3,29).

Who is Jeevatma?  Who is Paramatma?  What is the relationship between the two?  Many of these principles can be understood by practicing “nirvikalpa samadhi” which is well known as Paramantaranga sadhane.

Doctors until today haven’t been able to definitively declare the number of diseases that can afflict humans.  This is impossible.

Diseases afflicting humans are related to one’s karma, nutrition, pleasure & drinking habits, body disposition such as obesity or severely thin and emaciated type. Yogasana practice can help rectify such conditions and promote overall health.

Yogangasana practice eliminates and prevents illness but also originates (manifests) the wisdom of jeevatma and paramatma according to the sutra “योगांगनुष्टानादशुद्दिक्शये झानदीप्तिराविवेख्यातेः” “yoganganushtanashuddikshaye gnanadeeptiravivekhyatehe” (2, 28) and one can study this and overcome their doubts.  It is a misconception  but not reality to think that all need to practice all yogasana postures or to get alarmed by assuming that it is impossible (to practice yoga).  Some have this delusion due to association with skeptics.  Similar to medicine, yogasanas are also prescribed according to one’s body type and condition.  

Those who are interested can learn more depending on their situation.

Caste, creed, gender, age etc. must not become an obstacle.  Everyone needs physical well being.

युदा व्रुद्धोति व्रुद्धोवा व्याधितोऽ दुर्बलोपिवा।
अभ्यासात् सिद्धिमाप्नोति सर्वयोगेश्चतंद्रितः॥

yuda vruddhoti vruddhova vyadhito durbalopiva
abhyasat siddhimapnoti sarvayogeshchatandritah

Whether youth, old age, or very weak due to affliction with a disease, if one does yoga practice in the right way without lazyness, can achieve the desired benefits.

However, those who unwisely don’t follow the right way but go off on their own, may encounter danger and experience pain.  This is known to all in any venture.

Some are proclaiming that “yogasana causes madness” (those who got mad by not practicing well and could not get it cured by any other sadhana).  They can’t explain how people get crazy without doing yoganga practice or they can’t prove that those who got crazy really practiced yoganga sadhana.

Anyone, on any subject matter, who does not study/practice properly and therefore can not experience appropriate benefits and proclaim that the virtue is defective or that the defect is the virtue, is making an  improbable statement that is against one’s own conviction.

Yogasana practice eliminates decomposing urine and fecal matter, musculature, and bad fat via the excretory orifices and makes the body glow.  Therefore, our ancestors had named yoganga sadhana as “astra shastra chikitsa or ashastra shastra chikitsa.”

Yogashastra has the ability to dissolve excesss fat and purify the blood in a person who is obese and make them look good, or in people who are very lean, the practice will help grow the muscles and give them beauty.  Therefore, many call this yogashastra as “sharirashilpa shastra” (body sculpting science).

Supporting expressions

1. वपुःक्रुशत्व॑ (vapuhkrushatvam) the state of body that can not get obese

2.वदने प्रसन्नता (vadane prasannata) Peace and lustre on the face

3. नाद स्फुटत्व॑ (naada sphutatvam) Clarity in language and heart

4. नयने सुनिर्मले (nayane sunirmale) Eyes that are shining without any illness

5. आरोगता (Arogata) Destroys all diseases

6. बिन्दु जयः Sexual energy under control
7. अग्नि दीपन॑ (agni deepanam) Indigestion is eliminated

8. नाडि विशुद्दिः (nadi vishuddihi) Blood vessels are purifiied

Those who pranayama along with yoganga sadhana will achieve "हटयोग लक्शणम्" (hatayoga lakshanam) -  this is explained clearly in Hatayogapradipika, 1, 78. (one must not forget that the practice must be as per the shastra).

Also, if we study yoga sutras 3, 46, 47, & 48 etc., along with Vyasa bhashya, we can learn special benefits of yoganga sadhana.

According to “Shwetashwataropanishat”, those who perform yogangasadhana systematically and follow the niyamas will lose the fear of disease and death as follows:

1. न तस्य रोगाः (na tasya rogah) he will not get diseases

2. न जरा (na jara) no old age

3. न म्रुत्युः (na mrutyuh) no death

This applies to those who practiced yoga and obtained divya teja sharira (divine and radiant body) - "प्राप्तस्य योगात्निमय॑ शरीर॑" (praptasya yogagnimayam shariram).

4. लघुत्व॑ (laghutvam) always energetic

5. आरोग्यम् (arogyam) good health

6. आलोलुपत्वम् (Alolupatvam) removes excess desires

7.वर्ण प्रसाद॑ (varna prasadam) brilliant sheen on the body

8. स्वर सौश्टव॑ च (svara soushtavam cha) refined speaking skill

9. गन्दः शुभः (gandah shubah) no body odor

10. मूत्रपुरीषमल्प॑ (mootrapurishamalpam) eliminates diseases of urinary tract and kidneys

"योगप्रव्रुत्ति॑ प्रथमा॑ वदन्ति" (yogapravruttim prathamam vadanti)  - Those who practice yoganga properly will first obtain these results.

It is not incorrect to say that those who learn to practice by looking only at picture charts are committing a blunder.  Those who practice following instructions from a qualified teacher will obtain the desired results according to :

एव॑विधे मटे स्तिथ्वा सर्वचिन्ताविवर्जितः।
गुरूपदिष्टमार्गेण योगमेव समभ्यसेत्॥

Evamvidhe mate stithva sarvachintavivarjitah
guroopadishtamargena yogameva samabhaset

(Hatayogapradipika, 1, 14)

It is very cheerful news that we are seeing an increase in the number of people who can teach and publicize yogangasana practice. However, we must seek out and examine those who have mastered the secrets of yogadarshana and only learn from them.

Those who have not studied vedas, vedanta and yoga related scriptures (texts) are not qualified to teach yoganga according to:

"शौच सन्तोष तपः स्वाध्यायेश्वर प्रणिधानानि नियमाः"

Shoucha santosha tapah svadhyayeshvara pranidhanani niyamah

(Patanjali sutra 2, 32)

In addition, yoganga practice can act as treament for body ailments, mental(mind) disorders and can teach distinctions between, manifestations of jeevatma, paramatma and the entire universe.

We have now seen that the treatments for body and mental disorders are taught by qualified teachers in medical schools.  Does not everyone know that treating such conditions independently could be very dangerous?

While practicing or teaching yogangasana, one must know which asanas and pranayamas to teach to whom? how many days? for which disease? (treatment) how many inhalations and exhalations? how long to do a particular asana? which asanas for obese individuals?  which ones for lean body type? when to inhale and when to exhale? for how long? Don’t we need teachers and promoters who know these secrets?

We need some who are just demonstrators.  However, if they don’t learn these secrets and want to only promote, it will not be of much use.  

Yogarahasya (yogic secrets), ragarahasya (secret of music, melody), rajarahasya (secrets of a king, ruler), dampatya rahasya (secrets of married couple) are really confidential.  It is not wise to act without understanding these essentials. These can be learned only from experienced elders and gurus.  Even then, it will take a long time according to shastras.  I hope the educated will take note of this.

In pranayama practice (yogangabhyasis), inhalation and exhalation motion is performed using both nostrils, trachea, tip of the tongue, between two lips and in between two rows of teeth.

Normally during yogasana practice, inhalation and exhalation is performed via the trachea deeply, subtly and with sound.  This is common practice with everyone.  This type of breathing is called “anuloma ujjayi” and quoted in -

मुख॑ स॑यम्य नाडीभ्या॑ आक्रुष्य पवन॑ शनैः॥
यथा लगति क॑टात्तु ह्रुदयावदि सस्वनम्।
पूर्वावत्कु॑भयेत्प्राण॑ रेचयेदिडया ततः।
श्लेष्मदेषहर॑ क॑टे देहानलविवर्धन॑।
गच्छतातिष्टता कार्य॑ उच्छामोख्यन्तु कु॑भक॑।

Mukham samyamya nadibhyam aakrushya pavanam shanih
yatha lagati kantattu hrudayavadi sasvanam
poorvavathubhayetpranam rechayadhidaya tatah
shleshmadeshaharam kante dehanalavivardhanam
gacchatatishtata karyam ucchamochyamtu kumbhakam

(Hatayogapradipika, 2, 51, 52, 53)

Bending the head (face) forward, pressing the chin to the chest tightly, through both nostrils via the trachea all the way down to the chest, making a slight hissing sound, take a deep inhalation (first timers as per their capacity) slowly without difficulty exhale through the left nostril.  This is called gurumukha.

This will eliminate the kapha (phlegm) from your throat and make you hungry.  Eliminates impurities from the nadis, stomach, lungs, excretory organs, kidnyes, and bone joints.  Also prevents jalodhara and mahodhara ailments.  This can be practiced sitting, standing, walking and lying down.

Every yogasana has a corresponding kriyasana.  After each asana, to prevent pain and to generate energy, we must always practice the kriyasana.  Many without knowing this secret, suffer, stop practicing yogasana and declare that there is no benefit from yoga practice.  Therefore, people who want to practice and teach yogasana must understand the pratikriyas appropriately and then practice.  For example, poorvasana is a pratikriya to mukhyasana or moolasana pachimatana asana.

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A Reminder

from Kalama sutra, translation from the Pali by Bhikkhu Bodhi This blog included.

"So, as I said, Kalamas: 'Don't go by reports, by legends, by traditions, by scripture, by logical conjecture, by inference, by analogies, by agreement through pondering views, by probability, or by the thought, "This contemplative is our teacher." When you know for yourselves that, "These qualities are unskillful; these qualities are blameworthy; these qualities are criticized by the wise; these qualities, when adopted & carried out, lead to harm & to suffering" — then you should abandon them.' Thus was it said. And in reference to this was it said.

"Now, Kalamas, don't go by reports, by legends, by traditions, by scripture, by logical conjecture, by inference, by analogies, by agreement through pondering views, by probability, or by the thought, 'This contemplative is our teacher.' When you know for yourselves that, 'These qualities are skillful; these qualities are blameless; these qualities are praised by the wise; these qualities, when adopted & carried out, lead to welfare & to happiness' — then you should enter & remain in them. Buddha - Kalama Sutta

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Sribhashyam (2) Table of asana (1) TAN postures (1) tatakamudra (2) tattvas samkhya (1) ten breaths in each asana (1) The 'Original' Ashtanga yoga Syllabus given to Nancy Gilgoff and David Williams by Sri K Pattabhi Jois in 1974 Mysore (1) the asana before the asana (1) the breath (1) The breathing God (4) The Complete Book of Vinyasa Yoga : Subroutines page numbers (1) The Four Immeasurables (1) The Indian Review (1) THE KALAMA SUTRA (1) the Original gita (2) the Original Yoga Sutras (2) The Purnacarya (1) The Viniyoga letter (1) This is yoga 1941 (1) This is yoga life magazine (1) tibet (1) Tirieng Mukha Eka Pada Paschimattanasana (1) Tirumular Thirumandiram (1) tittibhasana (1) TK Shribhsyam (1) TKV Desikachar (1) tradition (1) Trataka (1) Trikonasana (1) TRS Sharma (2) uddiyana bandha (2) uddiyana kriya (1) uddiyana mudra Kino (1) ujjayi (1) unsupported headstands (2) urdhva dhanurasana (1) Urdhvamukhasvanasana (1) ushtrasana (1) utthita parsvakonasana (1) vajrasana (1) Veena (1) Vinay Kumar (1) Vinyasa (1) Vinyasa count (2) Vinyasa Krama (11) Vinyasa Krama 200HR TT program (1) Vinyasa Krama practice routine (1) Vinyasa Krama practice sheets (1) Vinyasa Krama Sister blog (1) Vinyasa Krama speeded up Ashtanga slowed down (1) Vinyasa Krama triangle subroutines (7) Vinyasa Yoga (1) Viparita Salabhasana (1) vipassana (1) vipraita salambhasana (1) Virasana (1) Vital points (1) VK Asymmetric seated sequence (8) VK Bow sequence (1) VK Inverted sequence (1) VK Lotus sequence (1) VK On one leg sequence (7) VK On your feet sequence (2) VK Seated Sequence (7) VK supine sequence (1) When I'm laid in the Earth. (1) Why meditation (1) why practice mudras. (1) Why practice yoga (1) Why Yoga (1) Wildyogi (1) Yamini Murthanna (1) Yoga (4) yoga and ageing (1) Yoga and pregnancy (3) Yoga and weight (1) Yoga Body (1) Yoga for Diabetes (1) Yoga for the three stages of life (4) Yoga for women (1) Yoga Gurandam (1) Yoga Korunta (3) yoga korunti (1) Yoga Makaranda (10) Yoga makaranda ( part II) (1) Yoga makaranda asana list (1) Yoga Makaranda part 2 (1) Yoga Makaranda Part II (2) Yoga makaranda translation. (1) yoga makaranda. (1) Yoga Meditation (1) yoga mudras (1) Yoga Nidrasana (1) yoga of action (1) yoga of motion (1) Yoga Philosophy (5) Yoga raading list (1) Yoga Rainbow festival (1) Yoga Science (1) Yoga sutra 1:33 (1) Yoga Sutras (3) Yoga Sutras II-49 (1) Yoga Sutras transliteration (1) Yoga therapy articles (1) Yoga Therapy for Children with Special Needs (1) Yoga tradition of the Mysore palace (1) Yoga Vinyasa yoga (1) Yoga yajnavalkya (1) Yogacarya Krishnamacharya - The Purnacarya (2) Yogacarya Krishnamacharya - The Purnacarya. Edited by Mala (1) Yogakriyas (1) Yogasanagalu (32) Yogasanagalu asana list (1) yogasanagalu translation (4) Yogasanagalua (1) Yogayajnavalkya (1) Yogeshwara Ramamohana Brahmachari (1) Yvonne Millerand (2) Yyvonne milerand (1)