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Thursday, 24 January 2013

More Yogasanagalu translation- Special instructions p70-83

The ongoing Krishnamacharya Yogasanagalu Translation project, sits on one of the page bars at the top of the blog ( below the main picture). 
Yogasana translation project

Satya Murthy's translation continues below with the long Special instructions chapter ( notes to come).

Krishnamacharya's Yogasanagalu p70

Special Instructions

One has to believe that the eight yoganga’s yama, niyama, asana, pranayama, pratyahara, dharana, dhyana and samadhi are the best way to bhakti sadhana and then practice.

Human development can not take place with just food, sleep and sexual pleasure. All animals experience this equally. Along with discovering the essence of jeevatma and paramatma, we must strive for energy that does not impair the mind due to rapid natural changes. The omnipresent, all pervading, all knowing, filled with the best qualities and who protects those who come to him, we must live under the orders of that Paramatma, acquiring wealth and property without going against what is prescribed in the shastras, taking a vow to dedicate the fruits of services back to him and to proclaim this in the world without any ego. Do not listen to those who are saying and publishing that “there is no God; it’s all a big hoax”. Those who practice yoga and their teachers must publicise the two foremost niyamas that are like a life force in this world - Brahmacharya and Pativratya.

We must not forget that various diseases afflicting people are mainly due to excess food, drinking and entertainment.

We must eat vegetarin food, speak the truth and one day a week practice silence (not speaking).

Fast once in 15 days and always display a pleasant personality.

The main factor that allows man to enjoy the comforts of life is the blessing of good health, this everyone agrees.

Knowing that “yogasana is the most important skill that provides such good health without too much cost and which is easily accessible to all castes and groups” our great  Bharat (Indian) ancestors have written many prominent texts so that we can practice according to the suggested niyamas and enjoy the fruits of practice.

This yoganga sadhana way is not new that was discovered recently.  These practices that were in vogue many thousands of years ago as witnessed in the vedas and puranas, have been resurrected.  Why all these statements?  Is Sri Bhagavad Gita, that is admired by all people of this world not enough?

Regarding the close relationship between yogasanas and body well-being-

हठस्य प्रथमां गत्वादासनं पूरवमुच्यते।
कुर्यात् तदासनं स्थैर्यं आरोग्यं चांगलाघवं॥
Hatasya prathamam gatvadasanam poorvamuchyate
kuryat tadasanam sthiryam aarogyam changalaghavam
(Hatha yoga pradipika, 1, 17)

Only yogasana makes it possible for humans to enjoy long life with healthy body and intellect by optimizing the unhindered movements of prana, apana, vyana, udana, samana and other ten different vayus along with purification of important and variety of nadis such as ida, pingala, poosha and yashaswini.  Swatmarama yogi states “without the well being of the body and the indriyas, the facile movement of the vayus will not take place, therefore, I will describe the yogasana kramas systematically and benefits resulting from practicing it.”   The basis of this is  “ ततो द्वन्द्वनबिघातः”
“tato dvandvanabighatah”  ( Patanjali sutra 2, 48).  Those who practice yogangasana are not bothered by cold, wind, sun, happiness, sorrow or to conditions of vata, pitta and kapha  according to Maharshi Bhagavat Patanjali.

Many thousands of years ago, these yoganga sadhanas were customary without any resistance.  However, it is my opinion that it is not our duty to figure out why these practices have disappeared now.

Yogadharshana and other shastras have described:

  1. Yama 5 types
  2. Niyama 5 types
  3. Asana Countless
  4. Pranayama 128 types
  5. Pratyahara 2 types
  6. Dharana 2 types
  7. Dhyana 2 types
  8. Samadhi 8 types

Yogasanas are the third step in the yoganga sadhana.

The sadhana practice that combines dharana, dhyana and samadhi is called “samyama” as per  “ त्रयमेकत्र संयमः” “trayamekatra samyamah”  ( Patanjali sutra 3,  4).  From this yogis can discover what can’t be seen by the eyes.

Yogasanas are coutnless, this is clearly suggested in Dhyanabindupanishat that lord Shiva gave spiritual advice to Parvati as “ आसनानि च तावन्ति यावत्तो जीवरशयः” (asanani cha tavanti yavatto jeevarashayah).  Despite this, many people still proclaim that there are only 84 asanas.  Hatha yogapradipika which serves as a fundamental yoga text says:

वसिश्ठाद्यैश्च मुनिभिः मत्सेंद्राश्च योगिभिः।
अंगीक्रुतान्यासनानि कथ्यन्ते कानि चिन्मया॥
(Hathayogapradipika, 1, 18)

Vasishtadyishcha munibihi matsyendradyishcha yogibihi।
Angeekrutanyasanani kathyante kani chinmaya ॥

It has been accepted by Vasishta and other rishis along with yogis Matsyendranatha and Gorakanatha that there are innumerable yoga postures.  However, isn’t it amazing that many still insist that there are only eighty four postures!

It has been described by Patanjali Maharshi that in yoganga there are three parts: bahiranga (outer) sadhana, antaranga (inner) sadhana and paramantaranga sadhana.

त्रयमंतरंगं पूर्वेभ्यः।
तदपि बहिरंगं निर्भीज्स्य​॥

Trayamantarangam poorvebhyaha।
Tadapi bahirangam nirbheejasya॥
Patanjali Sutra (3, 7-8)

The first five steps of the eight mentioned before are well known as “bahiranga sadhana”  The remaining three are widely known as “antaranga sadhana.”  Only nirvikalpa samadhi is classified under “paramantarana sadhana”.  Samyama also comes under antaranga sadhana.

Diseases that can be observed by the main sense organs such as eyes and ears, those affecting body parts such as  hands and legs, sense organs  (eye, ear, nose, tongue etc. ), muscles, lungs, nadis and nadi granthis, bones and spaces between the bones can be eliminated and the body made powerful by practicing the five bahiranga sadhanas - yama, niyama, asana, pranayama and pratyahara.

Although it can not be observed by the main sense organs, the jeeva or soul that is hidden within the body and experiences countless suffering and joys according to followers of Visishtadwita and Dwita philosophies, in the mind as per Sankhya followers, reflection of jeevatma according to some yogis and Advita followers.  The mind (its ability to experience) with attributes of wanderings and restraint by way of the heart (called Dahara and Kuhara) is rooted above and below in the following chakras:

  1. Mooladhara chakra - below the navel and above the reproductive organs
  2. Swadishtana - between mooladhara and manipuraka
  3. Manipuraka - exactly on the navel (belly button)
  4. Anahuta - middle of the heart
  5. Vishuddi chakra - below the neck
  6. Agna - between the eye brows
  7. Sahasrara - crown of the head

Encompassing these seven chakras (nadi granthis) are 1. Avrutti, 2. Parivruti and 3. Samvruti.
The movement (activation) of these chakras are caused by the greatness (power) of pranayama and the variety of rechaka, puraka and kumbhaka.

Along with these, ‘antaranga sadhana”  practices of dharana, dhyana and samadhi stabiliizes the wandering, drifting and roving mind, eliminates mental illness and worries, enhances life expectancy, intellectual power and expands the mind to new ideas.  

Along with these, by practicing antaranga sadhana called “samyama”, yoga practitioners may see subtle substances that are not visible to the naked eye (without using modern instruments) and can know the truth. This type of samyama is called antardrushti, divyadrushti or yogadrushti.  The details of this can be understood by studying Sutras  “नाभिचक्रे कार्यव्यूहझानम्”  “nabhichakre karyafyoohagnanam” (3,29).

Who is Jeevatma?  Who is Paramatma?  What is the relationship between the two?  Many of these principles can be understood by practicing “nirvikalpa samadhi” which is well known as Paramantaranga sadhane.

Doctors until today haven’t been able to definitively declare the number of diseases that can afflict humans.  This is impossible.

Diseases afflicting humans are related to one’s karma, nutrition, pleasure & drinking habits, body disposition such as obesity or severely thin and emaciated type. Yogasana practice can help rectify such conditions and promote overall health.

Yogangasana practice eliminates and prevents illness but also originates (manifests) the wisdom of jeevatma and paramatma according to the sutra “योगांगनुष्टानादशुद्दिक्शये झानदीप्तिराविवेख्यातेः” “yoganganushtanashuddikshaye gnanadeeptiravivekhyatehe” (2, 28) and one can study this and overcome their doubts.  It is a misconception  but not reality to think that all need to practice all yogasana postures or to get alarmed by assuming that it is impossible (to practice yoga).  Some have this delusion due to association with skeptics.  Similar to medicine, yogasanas are also prescribed according to one’s body type and condition.  

Those who are interested can learn more depending on their situation.

Caste, creed, gender, age etc. must not become an obstacle.  Everyone needs physical well being.

युदा व्रुद्धोति व्रुद्धोवा व्याधितोऽ दुर्बलोपिवा।
अभ्यासात् सिद्धिमाप्नोति सर्वयोगेश्चतंद्रितः॥

yuda vruddhoti vruddhova vyadhito durbalopiva
abhyasat siddhimapnoti sarvayogeshchatandritah

Whether youth, old age, or very weak due to affliction with a disease, if one does yoga practice in the right way without lazyness, can achieve the desired benefits.

However, those who unwisely don’t follow the right way but go off on their own, may encounter danger and experience pain.  This is known to all in any venture.

Some are proclaiming that “yogasana causes madness” (those who got mad by not practicing well and could not get it cured by any other sadhana).  They can’t explain how people get crazy without doing yoganga practice or they can’t prove that those who got crazy really practiced yoganga sadhana.

Anyone, on any subject matter, who does not study/practice properly and therefore can not experience appropriate benefits and proclaim that the virtue is defective or that the defect is the virtue, is making an  improbable statement that is against one’s own conviction.

Yogasana practice eliminates decomposing urine and fecal matter, musculature, and bad fat via the excretory orifices and makes the body glow.  Therefore, our ancestors had named yoganga sadhana as “astra shastra chikitsa or ashastra shastra chikitsa.”

Yogashastra has the ability to dissolve excesss fat and purify the blood in a person who is obese and make them look good, or in people who are very lean, the practice will help grow the muscles and give them beauty.  Therefore, many call this yogashastra as “sharirashilpa shastra” (body sculpting science).

Supporting expressions

1. वपुःक्रुशत्व॑ (vapuhkrushatvam) the state of body that can not get obese

2.वदने प्रसन्नता (vadane prasannata) Peace and lustre on the face

3. नाद स्फुटत्व॑ (naada sphutatvam) Clarity in language and heart

4. नयने सुनिर्मले (nayane sunirmale) Eyes that are shining without any illness

5. आरोगता (Arogata) Destroys all diseases

6. बिन्दु जयः Sexual energy under control
7. अग्नि दीपन॑ (agni deepanam) Indigestion is eliminated

8. नाडि विशुद्दिः (nadi vishuddihi) Blood vessels are purifiied

Those who pranayama along with yoganga sadhana will achieve "हटयोग लक्शणम्" (hatayoga lakshanam) -  this is explained clearly in Hatayogapradipika, 1, 78. (one must not forget that the practice must be as per the shastra).

Also, if we study yoga sutras 3, 46, 47, & 48 etc., along with Vyasa bhashya, we can learn special benefits of yoganga sadhana.

According to “Shwetashwataropanishat”, those who perform yogangasadhana systematically and follow the niyamas will lose the fear of disease and death as follows:

1. न तस्य रोगाः (na tasya rogah) he will not get diseases

2. न जरा (na jara) no old age

3. न म्रुत्युः (na mrutyuh) no death

This applies to those who practiced yoga and obtained divya teja sharira (divine and radiant body) - "प्राप्तस्य योगात्निमय॑ शरीर॑" (praptasya yogagnimayam shariram).

4. लघुत्व॑ (laghutvam) always energetic

5. आरोग्यम् (arogyam) good health

6. आलोलुपत्वम् (Alolupatvam) removes excess desires

7.वर्ण प्रसाद॑ (varna prasadam) brilliant sheen on the body

8. स्वर सौश्टव॑ च (svara soushtavam cha) refined speaking skill

9. गन्दः शुभः (gandah shubah) no body odor

10. मूत्रपुरीषमल्प॑ (mootrapurishamalpam) eliminates diseases of urinary tract and kidneys

"योगप्रव्रुत्ति॑ प्रथमा॑ वदन्ति" (yogapravruttim prathamam vadanti)  - Those who practice yoganga properly will first obtain these results.

It is not incorrect to say that those who learn to practice by looking only at picture charts are committing a blunder.  Those who practice following instructions from a qualified teacher will obtain the desired results according to :

एव॑विधे मटे स्तिथ्वा सर्वचिन्ताविवर्जितः।
गुरूपदिष्टमार्गेण योगमेव समभ्यसेत्॥

Evamvidhe mate stithva sarvachintavivarjitah
guroopadishtamargena yogameva samabhaset

(Hatayogapradipika, 1, 14)

It is very cheerful news that we are seeing an increase in the number of people who can teach and publicize yogangasana practice. However, we must seek out and examine those who have mastered the secrets of yogadarshana and only learn from them.

Those who have not studied vedas, vedanta and yoga related scriptures (texts) are not qualified to teach yoganga according to:

"शौच सन्तोष तपः स्वाध्यायेश्वर प्रणिधानानि नियमाः"

Shoucha santosha tapah svadhyayeshvara pranidhanani niyamah

(Patanjali sutra 2, 32)

In addition, yoganga practice can act as treament for body ailments, mental(mind) disorders and can teach distinctions between, manifestations of jeevatma, paramatma and the entire universe.

We have now seen that the treatments for body and mental disorders are taught by qualified teachers in medical schools.  Does not everyone know that treating such conditions independently could be very dangerous?

While practicing or teaching yogangasana, one must know which asanas and pranayamas to teach to whom? how many days? for which disease? (treatment) how many inhalations and exhalations? how long to do a particular asana? which asanas for obese individuals?  which ones for lean body type? when to inhale and when to exhale? for how long? Don’t we need teachers and promoters who know these secrets?

We need some who are just demonstrators.  However, if they don’t learn these secrets and want to only promote, it will not be of much use.  

Yogarahasya (yogic secrets), ragarahasya (secret of music, melody), rajarahasya (secrets of a king, ruler), dampatya rahasya (secrets of married couple) are really confidential.  It is not wise to act without understanding these essentials. These can be learned only from experienced elders and gurus.  Even then, it will take a long time according to shastras.  I hope the educated will take note of this.

In pranayama practice (yogangabhyasis), inhalation and exhalation motion is performed using both nostrils, trachea, tip of the tongue, between two lips and in between two rows of teeth.

Normally during yogasana practice, inhalation and exhalation is performed via the trachea deeply, subtly and with sound.  This is common practice with everyone.  This type of breathing is called “anuloma ujjayi” and quoted in -

मुख॑ स॑यम्य नाडीभ्या॑ आक्रुष्य पवन॑ शनैः॥
यथा लगति क॑टात्तु ह्रुदयावदि सस्वनम्।
पूर्वावत्कु॑भयेत्प्राण॑ रेचयेदिडया ततः।
श्लेष्मदेषहर॑ क॑टे देहानलविवर्धन॑।
गच्छतातिष्टता कार्य॑ उच्छामोख्यन्तु कु॑भक॑।

Mukham samyamya nadibhyam aakrushya pavanam shanih
yatha lagati kantattu hrudayavadi sasvanam
poorvavathubhayetpranam rechayadhidaya tatah
shleshmadeshaharam kante dehanalavivardhanam
gacchatatishtata karyam ucchamochyamtu kumbhakam

(Hatayogapradipika, 2, 51, 52, 53)

Bending the head (face) forward, pressing the chin to the chest tightly, through both nostrils via the trachea all the way down to the chest, making a slight hissing sound, take a deep inhalation (first timers as per their capacity) slowly without difficulty exhale through the left nostril.  This is called gurumukha.

This will eliminate the kapha (phlegm) from your throat and make you hungry.  Eliminates impurities from the nadis, stomach, lungs, excretory organs, kidnyes, and bone joints.  Also prevents jalodhara and mahodhara ailments.  This can be practiced sitting, standing, walking and lying down.

Every yogasana has a corresponding kriyasana.  After each asana, to prevent pain and to generate energy, we must always practice the kriyasana.  Many without knowing this secret, suffer, stop practicing yogasana and declare that there is no benefit from yoga practice.  Therefore, people who want to practice and teach yogasana must understand the pratikriyas appropriately and then practice.  For example, poorvasana is a pratikriya to mukhyasana or moolasana pachimatana asana.

1 comment:

  1. I asked Satya where we are in the translation of Yogasanagalu and how much more is left to translate.

    "There is one more chapter immediately following the section that I just completed (special Instructions above) called "Remembrance" (starts on page 84). This is somewhat similar to the special instruction section covering some of the same topics and some more detailed instructions for asanas in the charts. I'm planning to do it next. Satya"


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A Reminder

from Kalama sutra, translation from the Pali by Bhikkhu Bodhi This blog included.

"So, as I said, Kalamas: 'Don't go by reports, by legends, by traditions, by scripture, by logical conjecture, by inference, by analogies, by agreement through pondering views, by probability, or by the thought, "This contemplative is our teacher." When you know for yourselves that, "These qualities are unskillful; these qualities are blameworthy; these qualities are criticized by the wise; these qualities, when adopted & carried out, lead to harm & to suffering" — then you should abandon them.' Thus was it said. And in reference to this was it said.

"Now, Kalamas, don't go by reports, by legends, by traditions, by scripture, by logical conjecture, by inference, by analogies, by agreement through pondering views, by probability, or by the thought, 'This contemplative is our teacher.' When you know for yourselves that, 'These qualities are skillful; these qualities are blameless; these qualities are praised by the wise; these qualities, when adopted & carried out, lead to welfare & to happiness' — then you should enter & remain in them. Buddha - Kalama Sutta


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