Saturday, 18 May 2013

Something for the weekend - Pranayama inc. Ashtanga pranayama

Something to dip in and out of for the weekend(s) perhaps.


Included below.

i. How I was taught pranayama by Ramaswami, inc. some short 'tutorials' that I made ages ago and need to redo.

ii . Followed by notes on mantra pranayama

iii. Ashtanga pranayama

iv. Article and notes on pranayma by Krishnamacharya's son T.K. Sribhashyam,

v. Review of a pranayama app posted a couple of years ago.


vi. A note on counting pranayama


Obviously one should approach pranayama with the same common sense as with our regular practice


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Been a full on week for me this week with Tuesday's three hour forty minute Full vinyasa ( long slow inhalations and exhalations throughout and 10 breaths in each posture) experiment. Took Wednesday off practice ( a pseudo moon day ) but practice was nice on Thursday and Friday, though felt sprightly after Tuesday's marathon. I said in the Full Vinyasa post that I never wanted to try something like that again, after two days I was craving to do it once more, although perhaps without the long holds in some of the more challenging postures mentioned.

Since coming back to by the book (Manju's) Ashtanga I've started taking Saturday off like a good Ashtanga. Last week I did nothing but from this week I thought I'd make Saturday's extended Pranayama day.

I tend to practice short pranayama sessions either side of my morning practice (currently primary series in prep for Manju's course in August).

Pre weekday Primary I practice Kapalabhati followed by a short ( six rounds) practice of , for example,

"UJJAYI ANULOMA:
Inhalation (PURAKA) through both nostrils in UJJAYI, Exhalation (RECHAKA) through Left Nostril, without ujjayi, Inhalation through both nostrils in Ujjayi, and Exhalation through the Right Nostril, without Ujjayi.  These two breaths making one Cycle of Ujjayi Anuloma". T.K. Sribhashyam

After Primary I include a short alternating nostril version of bhastrika followed by a short (six rounds) Nadi Shodana practice.

"NADI SHODHANA:  This is a Pranayama where no ujjayi should ever be used.  Inhale by the Left Nostril, Exhale by the Right Nostril, Inhale by the Right Nostril, Exhale by the Left Nostril.
It is to be noted that a Pranayama can have KUMBHAKA: either after Inhalation (called ANTAH KUMBHAKA) or after Exhalation (called BAHYA KUMBHAKA)". T.K. Sribhashyam

You can get an idea of this approach to Pranayama  from this Video of Krishnamacharya's Life saving practice, the pranayama comes at the beginning and end of the video.

 

In the evenings I tend to do a short Vinyasa Krama Bow and Meditative sequence that is very similar, covering much of the same ground, as 2nd series Ashtanga up to kapo.

this is followed by my main pranayama practice, kapalabhati followed by around twenty to thirty minutes of nadi Shaodana with mantra.

Then Pratyahara and Japa mantra meditation.

Starting this morning, I plan on doing a short, basic (key postures), Vinyasa Krama practice followed by 80 rounds of Nadi Shodana that Ramaswami recommended on his 2010 TT course.

Hopefully in the next couple of weeks I'll be exploring David Garrigues Ashtanga pranayama DVD's and book and sharing that experience here.

Until that arrives here are my Pranayama notes from the pranayama Page/tab that sits permanently at the top of the blog.

Included below.

i. How I was taught pranayama by Ramaswami, inc. some short 'tutorials' that I made ages ago and need to redo.

ii . Followed by notes on mantra pranayama

iii. Ashtanga pranayama

iv. Article and notes on pranayma by Krishnamacharya's son T.K. Sribhashyam,

v. Review of a pranayama app posted a couple of years ago.


vi. A note on counting pranayama

Pranayama


i. Along the lines of how I was taught by Srivatsa Ramaswami
(Ashtanga pranayama half way down page)

I've just posted a bunch of Pranayama videos on Youtube for the sister blog , Vinyasa Krama Sequences and subroutines and thought I'd make the most of them and make this Pranayama week here too. They basically outline stages in developing a practice, I've broken them down so you can start wherever you feel most comfortable.

The videos aren't great, the sound quality is poor, sorry, but if you crank up the volume I think you can get an idea of what's going on. Also, my chanting is quite awful, sounds a lot better in my head which is where it tends to stay. Mostly I give instruction and a count for the first round and then just do it for the next couple. I'd hoped the recording would pick up the sound of my breathing but it doesn't really catch it. In the later videos I try recording a voice over but that's a nightmare to sync. They are what they and if anyone is curious or had wanted to start building a practice they might be something to be going on with. I'll go into a little more detail on each video over the next couple of days but if your tempted to dive in right away here's a suggestion.

Start off with some Kapalibhati HERE and then move on through the main Pranayama videos. Try Pranayama 1 and 2 and see how comfortable that is, you might want to keep the exhale at an eight count rather than ten, that's fine. If your comfortable there give Nadi Shodana a try, videos 5 & 6, they have the same ratio. At this point you might want to try learning the Pranayama mantra (see the chant page at the top of the blog, it printed out as well as some MP3's of Ramaswami teaching it ) and chanting along, it has the same ratio as the first ujaii video. After a couple of days, sessions or weeks start increasing the ratios with videos 3 & 4 and/or 6 & 7. When your ready you might like to try and increase the retention of the breath long enough to chant the full mantra 15-20 seconds depending how fast you go. I tend to start off fast and then settle down to a slower chant half way through my practice.

If your linking here from the Youtube videos and aren't an Ashtangi then I should probably say something about bandhas. You could give them a miss at first and just go through the videos missing that part out altogether although some would argue it's not pranayama without them. Start with what feels comfortable, a nod in their direction perhaps. So three bandhas here, very very simply put Mula bahanda (rectal lock, just lightly clench and lift the rectal muscles for now, it gets more subtle as you go on), Uddiyana is where you see me draw in my belly and lift. Mine is a little extreme here, it's how I tend to practice but also makes clear what's going on for the video. To start with you might like to imagine a thread that draws your belly button back towards your spine, it's a start. The third lock is Jhalandara, throat lock, just bring your chin down towards your chest, ideally the space between your clavicle

The first four videos are straight forward Ujaii breathing (constrict the throat to make yourself sound a little like Darth Vader) building up the ratios. The first one is 1;1;1, five seconds inhale, five holding the breath and five exhaling. The second one has the same ratio but includes the bandhas so 1;1;1;1. The next one doubles the exhale 1;1;2;1 and the fourth doubles the holding of the inhale so 1;2;2;1 thats 5 second inhale/ 10 seconds hold /10 seconds exhale/ 5 seconds for the bandhas.

The next group, five, six and seven are basically doing the same thing, building up the ratios, but employ Nadi Shodana, alternating the nostrils.

Pranayama 8 is one of my favourites. It's Ujaii Pranayama but with mantra. While inhaling you chant in your head the first part of the Pranayama mantra then chant the second part while holding the breath and chant the final part as you exhale. I've made it 1;1;1;1; but you can slow down the speed of your chanting to change the ratio.

Pranayama 9 is my standard, everyday, Pranayama practice. The ratio is 1;4;2;1 and I chant the full pranayama mantra while retaining the breath after the inhale.

The final video is Viloma Ujaii with mantra and at the same ratio 1;4;2;1. This alternates the nostrils as in nadi Shaodana but also includes ujaii breathing. It's tricky but quite something once you get the hang of it.

I should also mention the Kapalibhati I put up a couple of weeks ago as I always do that before starting my Pranayama, kind of the link between my asana practice and the Pranayama.

VIDEO TUTORIALS
123. yogic postures for `breathing exercises p247
The following Pranayamas are taken from Ramaswami's other book 'Yoga for the three stages of life'.
126. The Locks ( Bandhas) p250

ii. LEARNING THE PRANAYAMA MANTRA


Get Your Own Free Hypster.com Playlist.

Pranayama Mantra








Learn more chants by Srivatsa Ramaswami HERE










A TRANSLATION OF  THE PRANAYAMA MANTRA


And here's a link to a page that translates (below) and explains the mantra

AUM bhUH, AUM bhuvaH, AUM svaH, AUM mahaH
AUM janaH, AUM tapaH, AUM satyam

AUM, the primordial sound, resides in all elements of the universe. It permeates the earth (-bhUH), water (-bhuvaH), fire (-svaH), air (-mahaH), ether (-janaH), intelligence (-tapaH) and consciousness (-satyam).

AUM tatsaviturvarenyM bhargo devasya dhImahi
dhIyo yo nH prachodayAt.h.

We pay homage to Gayatri, the one who shines like the sun (tat savitur), the one who destroys all our sins through her everlasting and effulgent light. Dear Goddess Gayatri, please illuminate our path towards our higher consciousness and lead us to our true purpose in life

AUM Apo jyotiH rasomRRitaM
brahma bhUR bhuvaH svar AUM..

Please shine your light (-jyotiH) in our path so we may partake of the everlasting nectar (rasomRRitaM) of brahman while chanting the primordial sound, AUM'!


Ramaswami's Mantra meditation Newsletter February 2012

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MANTRA PRANAYAMA

Considerable amount of literature is now available on Pranayama (from
ancient and contemporary yogis), an important anga of Yoga, even
though a smaller and smaller number of Hatha yogis do a smaller and
smaller number of pranayamas. In fact according to Brahmananda who
wrote an important commentary of Hathayogapradeepika, Hatha yoga is
indeed Pranayama. Patanjali in his Yoga Sutras succinctly gives the
parameters of pranayama along with the benefits. Hathayoga pradeepika
and several other hatha yohga texts talk about a variety of pranayamas
with different ratios in considerable detail and as I said enough
literature is available on pranayama. However since it is also the
anga prior to the antaranga or meditation, parts of yoga pranayama has
been used to prepare oneself for meditation. If in pranayama you can
introduce some noble thoughts for meditation like an uplifting mantra,
bhava thought or an image such pranayamas are called sagarbha
pranayama or pranayama pregnant with lofty ideas. Sri Krishnamacharya
in his “Nathamini's Yoga Rahasya” says that sagarbha pranayama is
several times more beneficial; more than the mechanical pranayama done
generally by hatha yogis.

Sagarbha pranayama done with pranayama mantra from the vedas, which
also includes the potent gayatri as a part of it, has been in vogue
since the vedic times. Sri Krishnamacharya in his yoga work
“Nathamuni's Yoga Rahasya” gives a number of instructions for doing
pranayama towards the end of the first chapter. He commends the use of
Pranava and the pranayama mantra with gayatri while doing pranayama
practice. Usually pranava (OM), the most potent mantra and the mother
of all mantras, as a stand alone mantra is used by renunciates like
consummate yogis and advaitins. And the gayatri impregnated vedic
pranayama mantra is used by householders and others in all pranayama.
In fact Manu in his famous Manusmriti says that the pranayama mantra
which consists of prnava, the seven vyahritis, the gayatri and the
head or siras portion should be recited while holding the breath in
Kumbhaka three times to be called as pranayama. Sri Krishnamacharya
also emphasizes the need to meditate on the meaning of the mantras
like the suggestion of Patanjali in YS.

Most people who do ritualistic pranayama in India use the pranayama
mantra referred to earlier. Manusmiti says as follows

“sa vyahritim sa pranavaam
gayatriim sirasa saha
trifpateth ayataf pranah
pranayamassa uchyate

Here is the translation“Pranayama is that in which the seven vyahritis
(bhuh bhuvaha...) each preceded by pranava (OM) then the gayatri, then
the siris are (silently) recited.”

It should be chanted (silently) while holding the breath (kumbhaka).
When it is done three times it is called panayama. The pranayama
mantra is 64 syllables and takes about 20 seconds to chant, more or
less. The verse quoted above says three times and some interpret it as
chanting the mantra three times while holding the breath, but
generally it is chanted once and three such pranayamas will make one
bundle of pranayama. If you try to do the chant thrice in one go it
would taken a minute and holding the breath for one minute could be a
real challenge to most and so most people stick to the earlier
option.

What about the duration for inhalation and exhalation? Sri
Krishnamacharya says in Yoga Rahasya that it should be vishamavritti
indicating that the time duration for inhalation exhalation and breath
holding would vary. So many go by the 1:4:2 ratio.

One may inhale for 5 seconds then chant the mantra during internal
holding for 20 seconds and then exhale for 10 seconds. The breath
holding after exhalation is considered a hathayoga practice and many
orthodox people who do pranayama as part of the Puja or Japa ritual
dispense with bahya kumbhaka and the bandhas. The quickie pranayama is
three times but it is recommended that on should do 10 times the
samantra pranayama.  (Contrast this with the hathayoga approach of
going up to 80 times mantraless pranayama).

Since children sometimes as young as 5 were initiated into vedic
studies, it becomes obligatory for them to do sandhya and hence mantra
pranayama and silent gayatri chant. But then because they are young
they may not be taught to do calibrated pranayama. Usually in course
of time they would learn to do long inhalation and exhalation say in
nadishodhana. Later they will be taught the whole vishamavritti
pranayama as explained earlier.

So the mantra is chanted silently in pranayama. But most people just
chant the mantra without the pranayama--they may merely touch the nose
but not do the pranayama. So we have one set of people who do
pranayama without mantras as most hatha yogis do and another group
especially in India who chant the mantra faithfully but do not do the
prnayama at all and thus both lose out. It even led the much revered
previous Sankaracharya of Kanchi to remark that if only Indians would
hold the breath (kumbhaka) rather than just touch/hold the nose they
would all become great yogis and spiritual persons.

My Guru also said that when doing any mantra in japa, in pranayama or
meditation, one should think of the meaning or import of the mantra.
That makes it lot more powerful and meaningful. What does this mantra
signify, many times we get initiated into a mantra routine without
knowing what it means. All yogis know that Patanjali insists on
contemplating on the meaning of pranava when doing pranava japa to get
the grace of Iswara.

“Om Bhuh, om bhuvah, om suvah, om mahah, om janah, om tapah, om
satyam; then the gayatri and then the siras which runs like this, ”om
apah jyoti rasah amrtam brahma bhurbhuvassuvarom” is the pranayama
mantra. This mantra appears in Mahanarayana Upanishad, the last
chapter of Yajur veda. This upanishad also contains several beautiful
mantras used on a daily basis like the offering to the five pranas
(before taking food), meditating within the heart etc. I got the whole
chapter (about 45 minutes of continuous chanting) recorded some 25
years back by “Sangeetha” and I believe it is available in some stores
in Chennai, India. You may learn the pranayama mantra—visit my website
www.vinyasakrama.com/chants and click on the “Learn Pranayama Mantra
chant” tab.

So what is the meaning of this wonderful pranayama mantra? Again there
are different interpretations. The conventional meaning for the seven
vyahritis is seven different worlds starting with the world we live in
to six other higher worlds. But the word loka is interpreted in a more
esoteric sense by a few scholars. They say that the words loka and
look are derived from the same root . And the seven lokas are the
seven perceptions of the ultimate reality which is Brahman the pure
non changing consciousness.

So this approach which gels with the advaita philosophy would be as
follows: According to the Upanishads, Brahman in its pristine state is
alone and there was no time or space (aksha and avakasha) in
contention. The Brahman once thought that it should become many
(bahusyam praja yeyeti). Then in the next stage It deeply contemplated
as to how it should create the universe and make many microcosmic
individual consciousness. This state was known as the stage of tapas
of the Brahman (sa tapo tapyata). Then after deep contemplation and
planning It created the entire Universe (idam sarvam asrujata). After
this creation the Brahman entered and permeated the entire Universe
(tat eva anupravisat) and every being as the individual Self.

The seven vyahrutis are considered as representing the seven states of
the same consciousness four at the microcosmic level and three at the
cosmic level. So when doing pranayama during breath holding
internally, one would say 'om bhuh', contemplate on the consciousness,
represented by pranava or 'om during the waking state. Then as the
second vyahriti 'om bhuvah ' is recited, one would think of the same
consciousness being aware of the individual dream state.

'om suvah” would refer to the same consciousness witnessing the deep
sleep stage. Om mahah, the fourth vyahriti is the consciousness beyond
the three earlier mentioned known amongst the vedantins as the fourth
state of the mind (turiya) or the yogi's kaivalya state. The same
consciousness now is identified with the Brahmana that created the
Universe (Om Janah). Then the next mantra, the sixth “Om tapah” would
represent the Brahman as one deeply contemplating and finally the
pristine state of consciousness “Om satyam” the one and only Brahaman.
With this the abhyasi is able to identify and meditate upon the same
one Brahaman as seen in different states. The theory that there is
only one consciousness that exists both at the cosmic and at the
microcosmic level is the bedrock of the advaita (No two
conciousnesses) viewpoint. So an advaitin while doing pranayama is
able to reinforce the advaitic conviction.

Then the second part of the pranayama mantra is the gayatri mantra. It
again refers to the ultimate reality as the inner light. Just as the
sun with its lustrous orb lights the entire world, the Brahman/Self
lights the entire chitta or the internal world of the meditator, so
that the chitta vrittis are experienced or 'seen' in the mind's eye .

The last portion known as the siras or the head, is an encomium to the
ultimate Brahman. It refers to It as OM., pure consciousness, the
universal light, the essence of the entire Universe, immortal
(unchanging), the source of the universe, and is known to the
individual as the inner Self during the three states of waking, dream
and deep sleep.

This meaning of the pranayama mantra is vividly brought to the mind as
the pranayama mantra is recited silently during antah kumbhaka. Then
it is known as samantraka or sagarbha pranayama. According to Manu
this samantra pranayama is the greatest Tapas/meditation.

It is said that those who are well versed in the chakras are able to
identify the seven vyahritis with the seven chakras in the body using
the respective bijakshara or seed mantras. Some make an effort   to
visualize the cosmic Brahman  in the seven chakras in the microcosm
itself.

There are other types of mantras used. For instance saivaites tend to
chant the siva mantras as they hold the breath as mentioned in the
Tamil Saiva classic “Tirumandiram”. The mantra “sivasiva” of four
syllables is chanted 16 times during one breath hold corresponding to
64 syllables as in the pranayama mantra referred to earlier.

Here is a pranayama for renunciates:

While doing puraka or inhalation the thought would be that the entire
universe is ultimately drawn into the Brahman. Then while in
antahkumbhaka the contemplation would be that the outside Universe and
I are no different from the Brahman. Then while exhaling the ego “I'
with the entire Universe is discarded as nothing but an illusion, not
real, not significant. And in bahya kumbhaka one would contemplate
that pure Brahman alone is real, It alone exists.

Those who believe in the reality of world and the trinity (Brahma,
Vishnu and Siva), would use pranayama to reinforce their faith.

Inhaling through the left nostril one should think of the four faced
Brahma the creator aspect of the trinity and of blood red hue (rajas
guna) while chanting Om 16 times. Then closing both the nostrils  and
holding the breath in  kumbhaka one should think of the white colored
(satva guna) Hari, the protector/sustainer chanting pranava 64 times.
Then while exhaling through the right nostril one should meditate on
Siva of dark color (tamo guna) chanting pranava 32 times. Then one
should start inhaling through the right nostril for 16 matras chanting
pranava 16 times and continue the pranayama for a predetermined number
of times with both mantra and bhava.

Different smritis and very old yoga texts refer to a variety of
pranayamas with and without mantras. Almost all the puranas have a
section on yoga which describe different asanas and pranayamas. (I
think with all this evidence one may say with some conviction that
Yoga is more than 100 years old). For more information on pranayama
you may consider referring to my book “Yoga for the Three Stages of
Life” pages 189 to 211.

Sri Krsishnamacharya's Yoga teachings were unique and very rich. In
Vinyasakrama asana practice, breath synchronization with slow
movements is an essential element. One would start the movement with
the beginning of inhalation or exhalation and complete the movement
with the completion of that breathing phase. The time taken in actual
practice may be between 5 to 10 or 12 seconds depending on one's
capacity and control. If it goes below 5 seconds one would stop the
practice and rest to regain the vinyasa krama acceptable breath. My
Guru, Sri T Krishnamacharya would say 'breathe with hissing sound' (a
la cobra, refer to ananta samapatti in YS) or 'with a mild rubbing
sensation in the throat'.

In this way, with long deep inhalation and exhalation, the intercostal
muscles are stretched and toned up and by the time pranayama is
started the accessory muscles of breathing are well exercised so that
one has a well oiled breathing apparatus for a very productive
pranayama practice. And while doing pranayam introduction of mantras
and bhavas helps to bring the mind to a focus which will be of
considerable help when one starts the meditation process. Thus Sri
Krishnamacharya following the tradition of yoga described in old yoga
texts like the yoga sutras, the puranas, smritis and other ancient
texts helped to understand and achieve the best of an outstanding
ancient system called Yoga.

You may access the earlier Newsletter by visiting my website
www,vinyasakrama.com and clicking on the Newsletter tab. Any comments
or suggestions please e mail to

Best wishes

Sincerely
Srivatsa Ramaswami

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iii. Ashtanga Pranayama

I explored Ashtanga Pranayama with Derek Ireland's CD for a time, and will revisit it occasionally, but tend to settle with my more established/familiar  approach to pranayama as taught to me by Ramaswami on his TT course at LMU. 



ASHTANGA PRANAYAMA 

I. TERMINOLOGY 

ANTARA KUMBHAKA Suspension of breath after full inhalation BAHYA KUMBHAKA Suspension of breath after full exhalation BANDHA Bondage or fetter
BHASTRIKA Bellows
BEDHANA Bhid = to pierce, break through CHANDRA Moon
JALA (As in jalandhara) Net, web, mesh KUMBHAKA Retention of breath
MULA Root
PURUKA Inhalation RECHAKA Exhalation SITALI Sitala = cool SURYA Sun UDDIYANA Flying up

II. BANDHAS IN PRANAYAMA 
Jalandhara Bandha: During Antara Kumbhaka (inhale retention) Uddiyana Bandha: During Bahya Kumbhaka (exhale retention) Mula Bandha: All of the time
III. TECHNIQUES OF PRANAYAMA
1) Rechaka Kumbhaka and Puruka Kumbhaka 2) Puruka Rechaka Kumbhaka
3) Nadi Shodhana
a. Sama Vrtti
b. Visama Vrtti 4) Bhastrika
5) Bhedana
a. Surya Bhedana
b. Chandra Bhedana 6) Sitali

IV. PRACTICE OF PRANAYAMA 
TO BEGIN:
3 Ujjayi breaths (with ujjayi breathing, ratio of inhale to exhale is 1 : 1) Inhale, with the exhale chant AUM

1) RECHAKA AND PURUKA KUMBHAKA
a. Rechaka Kumbhaka
Inhale, exhale then hold breath
Repeat for a total of three breaths
Then immediately begin Puruka Kumbhaka
b. Puruka Kumbhaka
Inhale, hold breath, then exhale
Repeat for a total of three breaths
c. The ratio of the length of the inhalation of breath to the exhalation of breath should be 1 : 1
d. Ratio of the length of the retentions for exhale (rechaka) vs inhale (puruka) is 2 : 3, for example, if the retention after the exhale lasts 6 seconds, the retention after the inhale should last 9 seconds
e. 3 Ujjayi breaths as a transition before next stage of pranayama

2) PURUKA RECHAKA KUMBHAKA
a. 3 breaths with retention after both the inhale and the exhale
b. Ratio of retentions for inhale (puruka) vs exhale (rechaka) should be 5 : 4. for example if the retention after the inhale lasts 10 seconds, the retention after the exhale should last 8 seconds
c. 3 Ujjayi breaths as a transition before next stage of pranayama

3) NADI SHODHANA
a. Sama Vrtti (same action)
1. inhale through both nostrils
2. exhale through left nostril, no retention 

3. inhale right, hold 1st retention 4. exhale left, hold 2nd retention 5. inhale left, hold 3rd retention 6. exhale right, hold 4th retention 
7. inhale right, hold 5th retention 8. exhale left, hold 6th retention
9. inhale left, hold 7th retention 10. exhale right, hold 8th retention 

11. inhale right, hold 9th retention 12. exhale left, hold 10th retention 
b. Visama Vrtti (irregular action) 13. inhale right, hold 11th retention 14. exhale right, hold 12th retention 15. inhale right, hold 13th retention 16. exhale right, hold 14th retention 17. inhale right, hold 15th retention 18. exhale right, hold 16th retention 
19. inhale right, hold 17th retention 20. exhale left, hold 18th retention 
21. inhale left, hold 19th retention 22. exhale left, hold 20th retention 23. inhale left, hold 21st retention 24. exhale left, hold 22nd retention 25. inhale left, hold 23rd retention
26. exhale left, hold 24th retention 
27. inhale left, hold 25th retention 28. exhale right, hold 26th retention 
29. inhale right, no retention
30. exhale left
c. Ratio of inhalations, exhalations and retentions is 1 : 1 : 1 : 1
d. 3 Ujjayi breaths as a transition before the next stage of pranayama 


4) BHASTRIKA 

a. In a seated position, hold the tops of the feet and pull them back into the abdomen
b. Slow inhalation
c. Perform a series of rapid, vigorous exhalations followed by reflexive inhalation through both nostrils (50 to 100 cycles) 

d. Pull the lower abdomen back strongly during the exhalation, using both uddiyana bandha and mula bandha
e. With the last exhalation, fully empty the lungs
f. Slow inhalation 

g. Long retention after inhalation, 20 – 40 seconds
h. Exhale
i. Repeat the inhale, vigorous exhale/reflexive inhale x 100, slow inhale, hold x 20 - 40 seconds, exhale sequence for a total of 3 cycles
j. 3 Ujjayi breaths as a transition before the next stage of pranayama 


5) BHEDANA 

a. Surya Bhedana
1. Inhale through both nostrils 2. Exhale left, no retention 

3. Inhale right, long hold (retentions are for 30 – 60 seconds)
4. Exhale left
5. Inhale right, long hold 6. Exhale left
7. Inhale right, long hold 8. Exhale left 

b. Chandra Bhedana
9. Inhale left, long hold 10. Exhale right
11. Inhale left, long hold 12. Exhale right
13. Inhale left, long hold 14. Exhale right 

15. Inhale right, no retention 16. Exhale left 
c. 3 Ujjayi breaths as a transition before next stage of pranayama 

6) SITALI 

a. Open the mouth and form the lips into an “O”
b. Curl the tongue and extend it slightly through the lips
c. Inhale through the tongue, short retention (3-6 seconds) d. Exhale through both nostrils
e. Repeat for a total of three breaths
f. 3 Ujjayi breaths 


7) FINISHING 

Inhale
Begin chants during exhalation

YOGA CHANTS 
Om Narayanam Padmabhuvam Vashistam Shaktim Tatputra Parasharancha Vyasam Shukam Gaudapadam Mahantam Govinda Yogaindram Athasya Shishyam Shri Shankaracharyam
Athasya Padmapadancha Hastamalakancha Shishyam Tantrotakam Vartekakara Mukyam Asmat Gurun Santatamanatosmi

(I am always bowed to our teachers—Narayanam, the first teacher, Brahma the Lotus Born, Vashista and his son Shaktim, Vyasa and his son Parasharancha, Gaudapada the Great, Govinda, Lord of Yogis and his disciple Shri Shankaracharya, and his disciples Padmapadancha and Hastamalakancha, and the author Varteka Trotakam)

Vande Gurunam Charanaravinde Sandarashita Swatma Sukhava Bhode Nishreyase Jangalikaya Mane Samsara Halahala Mohashantiye Abahu Purushakaram
Shankachakra Asi Dharinam Sahasra Shirasam Swetam Pranamami Patanjalim OM

(I respectfully bow to the lotus feet of my teacher, who teaches the knowledge of the Self that awakens us to great happiness, who is the Jungle Physician and dispeller of the poison of conditioned existence. Taking the form of aman up to the hands, holding a conch, a discus and a sword, and having a thousand heads of white light, Pantanjali, I bow to you.)

Sahanavavatu Sahanau Bhunaktu Saha Viryam
Karava Vahai Tejas Vinau Adhitamastu Ma Vidvisha Vaha-i-i
OM Shanti Shanti Shanti

(May wisdom protect and nourish us, let us work together for wisdom, may our study be illuminating, may we never be at discord)

OM Namo Brahmavidibhyo Brahmavidya Sampradaya Karatrobhyo Namo Vomsharishaibhyo Namo Mahadibhyo Namo Gurubhyaha
Sarva Uplaplava Rahita Prajnanaghana Pratagarthaha
Brahma Iva Aham Asmi
OM Tat Sat

(Salutations to Brahma and the originators of His wisdom, salutations to the sage of our family lineage, salutations to the great teachers. I am Brahma only, perfect consciousness, devoid of al misfortune.) 

--------------------------

iv. P R A N A Y A M A  -  An Absolute necessity in YOGA
- A  dedicated homage to my father and teacher,
Sri T. KRISHNAMACHARYA.

... by  T.K.SRIBHASHYAM, Nice, FRANCE
http://www.yogakshemam.net/English/homepage.html
                     
    
                       Whatever be the reason for teaching Yoga, it is a certainty that the pupil, slowly but definitely, quests for the ULTIMATE REALITY.  Even if multitudes of methods, school, ideas and individuation have drifted Yoga from its real value, yet, it is because of the incessant search of pupils that Yoga continues to have an important place in the inner reflections of people all around the world.
           This drift from the real nature of Yoga might have many reasons.  Amongst them the lack of importance given to PRANAYMA in one's practice cannot be ignored.


Very often false reasons are invoked to keep PRANAYAMA away from one's teaching or practice.  Still, there is not one teacher nor one school that does not talk of PRANA.
          It is true that the Yogic way for the quest of inner Self and the Search for God Realisation through Pranayama is not a simple subject.  This should not be an excuse for not introducing it in the practice sessions of pupils whether they practice regularly or not.

      In fact, Pranayama maintains and  keeps our spiritual life alive, just as our breath that keeps our biological one alive.  For the same reason very often Pranayama is confounded with our physiological breath.  Indeed, the relation between the two seems so juxtaposed that we get mixed up.  It is just like a tool and the basic raw material out of which the tool is made up of.  The tool is so much and so often used that we seldom think of the importance of the basic metal that give birth to the tool.  Still, we know that the quality and the value of the basic material are the determining factors for the utility, value and life of the tool. Same way,  in the eyes of the Yogic Masters, our physiological breath is but a tool.

      The Great Masters of India used this relation to the utmost and derived great benefit in their spiritual quest.  They did not use the physiological breathing merely to increase  the vital reserves, but valued it more in a metaphysical sense.   Since the physical breath is but a product of the basic material, this product should help us `know' that basic material!      
                                   
      That is to say, by `going beyond' the product, in which the basic material is present, one should be able to find it in its `natural form'.  This,  the VEDAS and the UPANISHADS call  PRANA, and that which helps go beyond is  AAYAMA.  So much so, the means by which the physical breath is used to `go beyond' are termed
PRANAYAMA.                         
                                                                                                                       
      PRANAYAMA is part and parcel of any Yogic approach worth its name.  Moreover, it is not out of place to take note that no Hindu ritual starts without a Pranayama.  This does not mean that Yoga is a religious act, but since it has its root in Hinduism, we cannot but consider it as our reference.

      Coming to the practical aspects, Yogic Science has given clear cut rules for the introduction of Pranayama in any Practice Session.  Later studies have given light on their physiological actions on the human body as a whole.
      
Here we shall content ourselves with some fundamental principles:

  1.  Those that act mainly on the Physiological functions,
       as for eg. UJJAYI ANULOMA and SHITHALI.
               
  2.  Those that act mainly on the Nervous System,
       as for eg. UJJAYI VILOMA, UJJAYI PRATHILOMA and
       NADI SHODHANA,
    
3.  Those that work on the mental plane,
       as for eg. NADI SHODHANA with Bahya Kumbhaka and
       SURYA BHEDHANA,     
      
4.  Those that maintain the Spiritual Quest,
       like the SAMA VRITHI in NADI SHODHANA, and SURYA BHEDANA
       both of them as SAGARBHA PRANAYAMA
      
       Let us briefly recapitulate the technique of the above Pranayama, remembering that the Pranayama are done in a sitting posture (VAJRA ASANA or PADMA ASANA), and that the back should be straight, without any cushion or pillow under the hips.

UJJAYI ANULOMA: Inhalation (PURAKA) through both nostrils in UJJAYI, Exhalation (RECHAKA) through Left Nostril, without ujjayi, Inhalation through both nostrils in Ujjayi, and Exhalation through the Right Nostril, without Ujjayi.  These two breaths making one Cycle of Ujjayi Anuloma. 
SHITHALI:  Slightly open the mouth, bring out the tongue, fold it lengthwise, to make it resemble a tube, Inhale (aspire) through the mouth.  At the end of the Inhalation, draw back the tongue, close the mouth, and Exhale through Ujjayi, by both the nostrils. 
UJJAYI VILOMA:  Inhale through the Left Nostril, without using Ujjayi, Exhale through Ujjayi, with both the nostrils open.  Inhale, again through the Right Nostril, without using Ujjayi, and Exhale through Ujjayi, with both the nostrils open.  This forms one Cycle. 
UJJAYI PRATHILOMA:   Inhale through Ujjayi, Exhale by the Left Nostril, Inhale by Left Nostril, Exhale by Ujjayi, Inhale by Ujjayi, Exhale by Right Nostril, Inhale by Right Nostril, and  Exhale by Ujjayi.  These 4 breaths make one cycles, and to be of any value, a minimum of 4 cycles or 16 breaths is needed.              

NADI SHODHANA:  This is a Pranayama where no ujjayi should ever be used.  Inhale by the Left Nostril, Exhale by the Right Nostril, Inhale by the Right Nostril, Exhale by the Left Nostril. 
     
      It is to be noted that a Pranayama can have KUMBHAKA: either after Inhalation (called ANTAH KUMBHAKA) or after Exhalation (called BAHYA KUMBHAKA)                 

SAMA VRITHI:  Sama Vrithi is a Pranayama imperatively practiced in NADI SHODHANA.  In this Pranayama, while following the technique of Nadi Shodhana, the time allotted to Puraka, Antah Kumbhaka, Rechaka and Bahya Kumbhaka should be the same.  For eg. Puraka = Antah Kumbhaka =   Rechaka = Bahya Kumbhaka = 5".

SURYA BHEDHANA:  Once again, this Pranayama should be done only in Nadi Shodhana.  Here, the Puraka, Antah Kumbhaka and Rechaka would have a proportional time measure.  The Antah Kumbhaka should be 4 times the measure of Puraka, while that of Rechaka should be of twice the measure of Puraka.  To cite an example: Puraka = say 8", the Antah Kumbhaka = 32" while the Rechaka = 16".

           It goes without saying that a Practice session has to have a Pranayama at the beginning and one at the end, and  a minimum of 12 breaths in each.


1.     UJJAYI ANULOMA or SHITHALI are the Pranayama that is to be introduced at the start of any Practice Session.  Ujjayi Anuloma is more congenial in Autumn and Winter, whereas Shithali is better suited to Spring and Summer.  Ujjayi Anuloma removes weariness coming from excess of mental or physical work, sentimental or emotional shock, fatigue coming from improper digestion in the small intestines leading to unwholesome assimilation.  It also stabilises the mental state.  Moreover, it has the possibility of providing and maintaining continuity in the mental states obtained in different Sessions.
      
SHITHALI is more a Pranayama that establishes the digestion, maintaining an `acide-base balance'.  It soothes the sense perception, has a tendency to remove the weariness of the sense organs.

      If ANTAH KUMBHAKA is more complementary to Ujjayi Anuloma, Shithali goes generally well with Bahya Kumbhaka.  In Ujjayi Anuloma, the duration of Kumbhaka should not exceed half the time of Puraka, while in Shithali, either Antah Kumbhaka or Bahya Kumbhaka should not exceed 5".

      The specificity of the 2 Pranayama is that they can be given at the beginning and or at the end of a Session.

2     UJJAYI VILOMA is a Pranayama, acting more on the nervous system, even though the practitioner finds relief in his mental state.  It soothes the nervous irritations, or excitements coming mainly from emotional, affective or sentimental overcharge in one's life.  Its action is very fast, so much so, it should be practised for a short duration say, for a continuous period of 15 days, followed by Ujjayi Anuloma which stabilises the results obtained through Ujjayi Viloma.  As the technical word Viloma indicates, the `movement' of the mind in this Pranayama is transcendental but `intensified', it is not advisable to practice Ujjayi Viloma at the end of a session, if the practitioner is to have a social life immediately after his practice.  Care should be taken in not introducing Ujjayi Viloma in case of mental depression, or in depressive tendencies.  Ujjayi Anuloma is the Pranayama for all sorts of mental depressions.
      
UJJAYI PRATHILOMA acts both on the nervous systems and on the thought processes So much so, it removes all nervous excitement, bringing back to normalcy the nervous impulses, removes the interferences of superficial thought processes thereby providing a clear mental space.  We can say, that Ujjayi Prathiloma suits to those who live under such extreme emotional stress that they are unable to forget it, neither are they able to do anything else.  Once again this Pranayama is to be practised for 2 weeks, replaced by Ujjayi Anuloma.  It is to be remembered that Ujjayi Prathiloma should be practised for a minimum of 16 breaths.  It works very well in the beginning of a session.  If practiced late in the evening, it induces sleep.  If this Pranayama is introduced, care should be taken to see that Ujjayi Anuloma finds its place in the end of the session. This Pranayama is very suitable to get oneself free from the after affect of emotional shocks.

      While Bahya Kumbhaka is more suitable to Viloma, no Kumbhaka is advisable in Prathiloma.
     
As for NADI SHODHANA, it is always a Pranayama of the end of the session.  For convenient practice of Nadi Shodhana, one should have had some practice of Ujjayi Anuloma, Sarvanga Asana, and if possible Shirsha Asana.  The action of this Pranayama, without Kumbhaka, is not so much on the biological changes in the body.  Its action is more on the clarity of sense perception, removal of sense confusions, attentiveness of the mind.  It should not be practiced when there is nervous irritability, emotional shock, or fear of spiritual sentiments, particularly  in those who do not believe in the value of a Divine Support, or where there is excess of fatigue.  Suitable Pranayama should be practiced at first to improve one's condition before working on Nadi Shodhana.  It is always conceivable to have done either Badha Kona Asana or Maha Mudra or Paschimathana Asana as the last Asana before doing Nadi Shodhana.

3.    NADI SHODHANA with Bahya Kumbhaka influences more the mental plane.  When we talk of mental plane, we talk of the emotions (ANUBHAAVA) and sentiments (STHAAYI BHAVA), having their physical or physiological response.  A disturbed mind, is the mind whose natural functions are overtaken by emotions or sentiments.  As long as these persist, mind will not be clarified, and without a clear mind (MANASSHUDHI) it is not possible to have an insight.

      Nadi Shodhana with Bahya Kumbhaka breaks the link between the emotions, sentiments and their physiological response.  So its action is more on the interrelation between the physical mode of emotions, and the emotional or sentimental impulse.  It goes without saying that this Pranayama comes in the end of a session, that the duration of Bahya Kumbhaka should not exceed on fourth the time of Puraka, that the conditions mentioned for Nadi Shodhana (without Kumbhaka) apply here as well.
     
      SURYA BHEDHANA in view of the important Kumbhaka it has, can be practised only when one has the physical and mental capacity and capability to assume the Kumbhaka.  Here we come to some of the important Pranayama of Yoga.  The technique clearly shows that this Pranayama outwits the physiological basis of the respiratory system.  Yet, when well practised, does not alter the O¨-CO¨ relations, and thus does not create any adverse reaction in the chemical imbalance in the body.  Moreover this Pranayama has the possibility of maintaining the Alpha Waves at will.  If the great Yoga Masters relayed on Surya Bhedhana, it should have been because they found that it works at the root of our emotions.  A regular practice of this Pranayama provides a proper control of the emotional activities of the mind.  This needs ample preparation and constant practice of Mudras like the Viparitha Karani, Maha Mudra, Ashvini Mudra and Asanas like Badha Kona Asana, Ardha Matsyendra Asana etc.  That is to say, those that have the centre of action at the root of our emotional response -- the Naval (NAABHI).  To obtain good results, this Pranayama is to be practiced sitting, facing East.

4.    For any spiritual quest, one has to purify the mind, in a way as to free it from sentiments, that are against those of the Creator or God.  At the same time, the Home of the Soul, the Heart (HRUDAYA) should be cleared of all emotions, except those that are Divine.  This can be done only if the  outward tendencies of the sense perceptions revert towards Inward Insight (ATMA AVALOKANA).  Since the Mind follows the senses, the sentiments follow the mind, the emotions follow the sentiments, PRANA follows the emotions, and the Soul (ATMA) follows Prana, we have to work in such a way as to reverse these outward tendencies.  That is to say, as long as the sense perceptions do not look Inward, it would not be possible to bring back the Prana, the Mind and Soul into the Heart.  This is the essential role of the Pranayama of the 4th Category.                 
     
All the Pranayama under this heading belong to principle of Nadi Shodhana. They are always to be practised at the end of a session.  Further, they are to be followed by Nadi Shodhana with Concentration on HRUDAYA.  The practice session containing Pranayama of this category should contain Asanas like Matsya Asana, Bhujanga Asana, Dhanura Asana, Sarvanga Asana, Shirsha asana, Ardha Matsyendra Asana, Badha Kona Asana, Paschimathana Asana.  Moreover, the number of breaths used in all the Asanas and Mudras put together should be inferior to the number of breaths of all the Pranayama finding their place  in the same Session. All the Pranayama of this series should be done facing East.
     
      According to Hindu Tradition, the Pranayama under this category should be SAGARBHA (= Conceivable).  That is to say, during the practice of these Pranayama, the image in the Mental Space should be that of God, or a Divine Object of Contemplation, and there should be silent muttering of God's name (or a Mantra).  Non believers in God, or those not having conviction in such an entity should adopt appropriate means.  They can use a non-physical object like an unique Star, a Horizon Point or the Dark Hallow of the Early Morning Rising Sun.  In any case, the object in the mind should be beyond the Time-Space Reality.

      The SAMAVRITHI, to be effective should have a minimum of duration of 8 sec. at each phase (or 32 secs for one breath), and it is always practised in Nadi Shodhana.  This Pranayama works at the base of our Verbal Expressions.  This, in the Manifested State (VYAKTHA) is located in the Perineum (MULA), while at the Unmanifested state (AVYAKTHA) it is situated in NAABHI, considered as the Link between the Creator and Man.  From the Manifested Sound Expression, the Shabda (the sound) assumes `colour' through the emotions, which find their root at Naabhi.  (It is to be noted that the SHIRSHA or the fontanelle becomes the link between Man and the Creator, in his transcendental path).  So much so, Naabhi has a dual role:  That of linking the creator with man, and that of `shading' the manifested sound through emotions.  This manifest sound, is what is at the basis of expression--spoken or otherwise, and when used through words, becomes language or as the Indian Psychology calls ALAMKARA (= Aesthetic Language).  All our reactions -- sentimental or emotional --  raise from the interactions or the disequilibrium amongst these various localisations.  As long as a perfect balance is not acquired between these, man is subject to emotional disturbances and they will not provide him Peace of Mind (CHITHA SHANTI).  SAMAVRITHI PRANAYAMA acts in this direction.  Its main centre of action is at Naabhi, and its aim is to delay the emotional activities, a delay sufficient for the mind not to follow the emotions.  The actions of this Pranayama is not felt immediately, but in our daily life.
     
      It is imperative to have had long practice of the Pranayama of the 3rd Category, before putting into practice those indicated in this last category.  Moreover, this Pranayama is efficacious only if the mind is in concentration with some Vital Points like Naasagra, Kanta, Hrudaya, Kurma Nadi, Naabhi.  The Points to be chosen depends on the psychological constitution and emotional set up of the student.  This Pranayama has a good complementary if Ujjayi Anuloma 16 breaths is introduced at the beginning of a session.  Similarly, Samavrithi is not to be practiced when one is under an emotional stress or in a depressive mood.  Also, it is advisable not to practice this Pranayama when one is not used to Concentrate on Vital Points.  The above mentioned actions of this Pranayama reside mainly on the  Concentration Points introduced (SAGARBHA PRANAYAMA).  If practiced as a respiratory exercise, it has every chance of bringing to surface emotions with their physiological response.  The importance of this Pranayama in Yoga is to be measured from the fact that it is one the very few Pranayama with Kumbhaka as long as Rechaka  that the Yogic Literature describe. 

      We now come to the Pranayama that has already been reviewed under the 3rd Category (SURYA BHEDHANA).  Technically speaking, this Pranayama is the same as the one we studied before.  But in this category the aim is to render Prana its natural and original function of being in close association with ATMA, and to show ATMA the path of the Supreme soul (PARAMATHMA) or the Creator.  (It is here that we understand the meaning of Prana Aayama: extending Prana towards the Creator).  In this Surya Bhedhana, concentration is an essential factor.  The concentration during Puraka (Inhalation) is used in such a way as to centralise all the mental faculties including the sensorial ones in HRUDAYA, to stabilise them in HRUDAYA during Antah Kumbhaka, so that cleared of all influences with regard to the external world, the mind reflects  itself, during Rechaka, its Original Nature of revealing the qualities of Atma.
     
      This Pranayama is also called ABHYANTARA VRITHI (or the Inner Movement), because the Sense and the Mental activities instead of going outward, turn inwards.  In this Pranayama, the Concentration Points applied are: Naasagra, Bhrumadhya, Lalaata, Kanta, Kurma Nadi and Hrudaya.
     
      Yet another Pranayama, which should be practised facing East.  The effect of this Pranayama, is increased if followed by a Prayer.  It would not be a repetition, if it is said that a Practice Session having this Pranayama should have only the Asanas and Mudra as is indicated under Sama Vrithi.  Moreover, the only occasion when Nadi Shodhana, can be introduced as a Pranayama at the beginning of the session, is when Surya Bhedhana as mentioned here finds its place in the end of the session, and the Asanas and Mudra are those that are mentioned under Sama Vrithi.

      Here are but some indications for the application of Pranayama, and it is beyond doubt that if properly used, under the keen observation and guidance of a Teacher, any student of Yoga will find the real value and benefit that Yoga Stands for.


---------------------

v. REVIEW OF A PRANAYAMA APP

Pranayama? There's an App for that.

So yes, an app for Pranayama. It's not ideal, it would be nice to have more control and be able to set your own ratios and/or time for each section. I want a 1:4:2:1 ratio of 5/20/10/5 seconds but it's a little awkward working out how to do that. I pretty much managed it, eventually, with the Advanced setting set at level 3.

I like using it because I kept losing count and forgetting where I was, especially with Viloma Ujaii. Best of all though is sticking it on at work while repairing, great when your doing something you don't have to think about to much like striping down an old sax.


A 20 second retention gives me enough time to silently chant the Pranayama mantra.

Here's a little demo of how I'm using it. This is the first app. demo I've done so excuse the thumb in all the wrong places. I think it's going for 2.99 GBP

Here's a link to the developers site and more professional demo's

I've settled into a routine now of finishing my practice with Kapalabhati (bellows like breathing) I do 108 of those, split into three, 36 in Padmasana (lotus) then 36 in Utpluthi (Lift up) and another 36 with my arms raised up bent back, hands crossed on my shoulders. I then do ten minutes of Nadi Sodana. I follow that with meditation, ten to twenty minutes depending on how I am for time. In the evening I do the same amount of pranayama, some more chanting and a longer sit.

Nadi Sodana Pranayama
Inhale : 5 seconds. Left nostril
retain : 20 seconds. Chant Pranayama mantra in my head
exhale : 10 seconds. Right nostril
retain : 5 seconds. Engage Locks

repeat



This is the Pranayama mantra I use.

And here's a link to Srivatsa Ramaswami teaching the Pranayama Mantra

As well as teaching some other Chants, including the Yoga Sutra's here http://vinyasakrama.com/Chants


--------------------

vi. A note on counting 'rounds' of pranayama

This can get confusing. How DO we count a round of pranayama?


I used to think that there where many kinds of pranayama, suryabheda, nadi shodana, Ujjayi, Viloma Ujjayi shodana... but this is problematic, suryabheda involves one inhalation and exhalation, nadi shodana includes inhalation and exhalation through both nostrils so involves two breaths and viloma ujjayi shodana, both nostrils and the throat so three breaths. If we count each cycle as a 1 pranayama nadi shaodana is going to take twice as long as suryabheda and viloma ujjayi shodana, three times as long.

However, my understanding now is that one pranayama equals one breath. This is often counted as one inhalation followed by kumbhaka (breath retention). obviously you would then inhale and perhaps include another kumbhaka after the inhalation before Inhaling again for the second pranayama.

Therefore...

a cycle of suryabheda counts as 1 pranayama

a cycle of anuloma or pratiloma Ujjayi  counts as 1 pranayama

a cycle of nadi shodana counts as 2 pranayamas

a cycle of Viloma Ujjayi shodana counts as 3 pranayamas

So to get to 80 pranayamas  I can choose to include cycles of

10 x Suryabheda                   = 10 pranayamas
10 x Chandrabheda               = 10 pranayamas
10 x Anuloma ujjayi             = 10 pranayamas
10 x pratiloma ujjayi             = 10 pranayamas
10 x Nadi shodana                = 20 pranayamas
5 x Viloma Ujjayi Shodana  = 15 pranayamas
5 x sitali                                =   5 pranayamas
                                             ----------------------
                                                 80 pranayama

or perhaps another combination of the above or some of the other pranayama techniques.

Personally, given the time I like to stick to ten of each as it takes me a couple or cycles before I settle into the rhythm. Also, although I'm currently exploring some of the different techniques and exploring longer inhalations or kumbhakas etc I probably prefer more time on each approach.

My ideal, after this period of experimentation, would probably be

10 x Suryabheda = 10 pranayamas
20 x nadi shodana = 40 pranayamas
10 x viloma ujjayi shodana = 30 pranayamas
10 x sitali (in warmer weather) = 10 pranayamas

....which actually comes to 90 pranayamas if we include the  the sitali but what the heck.

How long each cycle takes depends on your ratio. In suryabheda at the beginning I'm doing
a shorter kumbhaka using the gayatri mantra (10 seconds) but building up to longer inhalations and exhalations (fifteen seconds each) and a short kumbhala after inhalations.

In nadi shodana I'm doing my regular
5 second inhalation/20 second kumbhaka (with the pranayama mantra) /10 second exhalation/five second kumbhaka, for the first ten cycles.

for the second 10 cycles I'm doing Krishnamacharya's One minute breath
15 second inhalation/20 second Kumbhka (with pranayama mantra)/ 15 second exhalation/ 10 second kumbhaka

In Viloma ujjayi shodana or sitali I'm exploring the longer kumbhaka after exhalation, chanting the pranayama twice (40 seconds).

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A Reminder

from Kalama sutra, translation from the Pali by Bhikkhu Bodhi This blog included.

"So, as I said, Kalamas: 'Don't go by reports, by legends, by traditions, by scripture, by logical conjecture, by inference, by analogies, by agreement through pondering views, by probability, or by the thought, "This contemplative is our teacher." When you know for yourselves that, "These qualities are unskillful; these qualities are blameworthy; these qualities are criticized by the wise; these qualities, when adopted & carried out, lead to harm & to suffering" — then you should abandon them.' Thus was it said. And in reference to this was it said.

"Now, Kalamas, don't go by reports, by legends, by traditions, by scripture, by logical conjecture, by inference, by analogies, by agreement through pondering views, by probability, or by the thought, 'This contemplative is our teacher.' When you know for yourselves that, 'These qualities are skillful; these qualities are blameless; these qualities are praised by the wise; these qualities, when adopted & carried out, lead to welfare & to happiness' — then you should enter & remain in them. Buddha - Kalama Sutta
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